International Journal of Humanities and Management Sciences (IJHMS) Volume 2, Issue 2 (2014) ISSN 2320–4044 (Online)The Use of Classroom Expressions as aTeaching Material of Microteaching Class inScience Education Program ofSemarang State UniversityArif Widiyatmoko, and Sita Nurmasitahthe target language but also study the other subjects using thatlanguage. This condition has a consequence of using Englishin communication or interaction between students and teacherduring the teaching learning process. The teacher should beable to be a model for the students in some elements related tostudents’ development process in learning. Besides masteringthe subjects that they have to study in class, at the same timethey have to comprehend English as an interaction andcommunication language.The desire of having a good education system, like usingEnglish in classroom learning and teaching process leads intoso many problems that one of them could be dealing with theteacher language skills. It is also found in microteaching classin the university level. Micro-teaching is a teacher trainingtechnique first developed by Dwight W. Allen and hiscolleagues at Stanford University in 1963. Microteaching is astrategy that can be applied at various pre-service and inservice stages in the professional development of teacher(Allen and Ryan, 1963). The previous research ofmicroteaching has already been done by Widiyatmoko andNurmasitah (2013). Its results show that the teaching learningprocess in the classroom still conducted in very limitinteraction. Many teachers had problem in delivering subjectsby using English. By that situation, the students in ScienceEducation Program of Semarang State University are preparedfor being a good teacher. The students get microteachingsubject that conduct both in Indonesian and English languagein their fifth grade of study to give them a basic teaching skilland teaching experience before they have teaching practice ina real class activity. Based on the Microteaching syllabus inScience Education Program, the students are trained to havebasic skills of teaching, such as; opening, asking question,teaching variation, explaining, giving reinforcement, closing,organizing the class, supervising group discussion, andteaching skills for small group or individual student. Thelecturer of this subject usually gave the theory of basicteaching skills in Indonesia language without giving anyfurther explanation on how teaching using English language.The lecturer provided the students with a simple material forteaching using English language because he is not fromEnglish Program, however he graduated from ScienceEducation Program itself. When the students asked to haveteaching practice in English, they found some obstaclesAbstract— Microteaching is one of the compulsory subjects thatshould be taken by students of Science Education Program ofSemarang State University. The students get microteaching subject togive teaching experience and basic teaching skills before they comeinto the real class activity. The students are teacher candidate who areexpected to teach science in schools, including international orbilingual schools. In this case, the students should not only masterthe science material but also have fluency in delivering the materialusing English language. This study presents the use of classroomexpressions as the teaching material of microteaching class conductedin Science Education Program of Semarang State University.“Classroom expressions” here refers to the scaffolding talks that canbe combined with the recent lesson material used to teach students inEnglish. The subject of this research was fifth grade students ofScience Education Program that conducted in six months. Theyfollowed a series of treatments in the classroom and then their finalperformance was analyzed by a rubric based on the flow of theteaching learning process. This study aims to give an alternativetechnique to lecturer in teaching Microteaching. Moreover, it alsomeasures the effectiveness of the classroom expressions material forthe students to help them teaching Science using English.Keywords—Classroom expression, microteaching, scaffoldingtalk, science educationI. INTRODUCTIONGLOBALIZATION era leads the development in every aspectof life. It causes a highly competition among countries.Indonesia, as a developing country, tries to align itsposition with other countries by improving and developingevery single aspect. The upgrading of human resourcesbecomes one of the main concerns. The improvement ofhuman resources is usually related with the education systemin a country. One method that is highly considered as thesolution of improving human resources quality througheducation in Indonesia now is the program of immersion orbilingual class in school. The idea of immersion class isexplained according to Johnson & Swain (1997) stated inNugroho (2013) as a class in which the students not only learnArif Widiyatmoko, is with the Semarang State University Indonesia(corresponding author’s phone: 6281325660100 ; fax: 62248508005 ; email: [email protected]).Sita Nurmasitah, is with Semarang State University Indonesia (e-mail:sita [email protected]).53

International Journal of Humanities and Management Sciences (IJHMS) Volume 2, Issue 2 (2014) ISSN 2320–4044 (Online)because of their limit English ability. Thus, the studentssometimes made their own translation on the classroomexpressions that probably rule out the grammatical andmeaning.The focus of learning process is interaction. This refers tothe importance of teachers’ talk in teaching learning processes.Through talks teachers are expected to help studentsunderstand the lesson. When the students have difficulty inunderstanding the talks, the teachers will help them by makinga bridge to get the students understand. This occurs throughthe interactional activity and talks in the classroom. Theclassroom is viewed as a place where understanding andknowledge are jointly constructed between teacher andstudents, and when learners are guided or “apprenticed” intothe broader understanding of the curriculum and the particularsubject discipline (Gibbons, 2002:15). Referring to this, therole of teachers’ talks is seen as the medium in teaching alesson.Because of those reasons, a set of classroom expressionsmaterial was applied in Microteaching class. “Classroomexpressions” here refers to the scaffolding talks that can becombined with the recent lesson material used to teachstudents in English. Rizal (2011) stated that ScaffoldingTheory was introduced in the late 1950s by Jerome Bruner, acognitive psychologist to describe children’s oral languageacquisition that was helped by the parents when they firstbegin to speak. Related to the classroom activity, scaffoldingtalk is the teacher talks in the language teaching. Agustien(2002) said that the teacher’s talk is divided into two partsnamely teacher’s main talk and teacher’s scaffolding talk. Theteacher’s scaffolding talks are the teachers’ talks that build upthe teacher’s main talks. In the sense that the talks give strongframework in teachers’ main talk, the teachers’ scaffoldingtalks have different functions which are also carried out inlinguistic features and the speech function they use. Thematerial of microteaching in Science Education Programapplies the possibility of the students to learn English andclassroom expression, sometimes called English forinstructional purposes, at the same time. Such treatments areexpected to reduce students’ anxiety of their English mastery.On the first stage, that is planning, the lecturer planned toapply a new technique of teaching, as well as a new material,to improve students’ ability in teaching Science using English.The materials were in the form of scaffolding talks set thateasily understood and memorized by the students. In thisprocess, the collaboration with English lecturer is reallyneeded since the lecturer does not have English educationbackground. The lecturer also created a syllabus functioned asthe guidelines of the material during the lesson. The studentsalso have limit English ability, so they usually have so manyproblems to use short and single expression to command in theclass. Most of them only know how to say greeting expressionssuch as ‘good morning’ or ‘see you’. That is why the lecturerwas encouraged to apply this simple material that at theminimum gave the students persisted skill in using English toteach. The materials were taken from English for PrimaryTeachers: A Handbook of Activities and Classroom Language(Slattery and Willis, 2001) in Faridi (2011) and Sydney MicroSkills (Turney et al., 1983).In acting stage, the lecturer started to apply the syllabus andmaterial that have been made to the students. TheMicroteaching subject conducts in sixteen meetings that spendfor about six months. The activities in the first meeting of thelesson concerned on the basic English skills of the studentsseeing that they had different level of English competence.Here, the assistance of English lecturer is very needed. Itconducted for 90 minutes meeting each. In this meeting, theEnglish lecturer remained the students the skills of English thatthey have already studied for several years. The next secondmeeting starts bringing them deeply in the classroomexpressions. In these meetings, the students were expected toreach the basic competence of mastering scaffolding talk as thefoundation to communicate English during the learningprocess. The lecturer gave a set of classroom expressions thenthe students were drilled to memorize the expressions. Thesame basic competence in second meeting was also employedin third meeting that used classroom expressions as the basicfoundation to communicate English during learning process. Inthese meetings the participants involved in deeper learningabout class management dealing with grouping the class, turngiving, explaining, organizing the class, and correcting error.The forth meetings explored the expressions of ‘pre-closing’and ‘leave takings’. On the same meeting, after all thematerials given to the participants, then they constructed thelesson scenario for their exercises. It covered expressions fromopening like greeting and checking the register, apperceptionor brainstorming, explanation included the materials they weregoing to deliver, discussion about the materials, reinforcement,independent talk and closing. The way participants used thelesson scenario could be various. They might either memorizeor read it in case they forgot to express the words. In thisactivity, the lecturer supervised the students not only in theclassroom expressions but also the teaching material. Thestudents supposed to present integrated science subject, in anytopics. In supervising the students’ science teaching material,the lecturer gave some suggestions and advices in makingsyllabus, lesson plan, worksheet, and the evaluationinstrument. They are expected to make interactive teaching –II. RESEARCH METHODThe subject of this research was 24 fifth grade students ofScience Education program in Semarang State University year2013/2014. Classroom action research was used in this studythat conducted through several stages; they are (1) planning,(2) acting, (3) observing, and (4) reflecting. Action research isdefined as any systematic inquiry conducted by teachers,administrators, counselors, or others with a vested interest inthe teaching and learning process or environment for thepurpose of gathering information about how their particularschools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn.Action research allows teachers to study their ownclassrooms—for example, their own instructional methods,their own students, and their own assessments—in order tobetter understand them and to be able to improve their qualityor effectiveness. In this research, the lecturer conducted theresearch in two cycles.54

International Journal of Humanities and Management Sciences (IJHMS) Volume 2, Issue 2 (2014) ISSN 2320–4044 (Online)learning process, for example by making interactive andinteresting media for teaching. The lesson scenarios from allparticipants were then employed as they were performingmicroteaching for final remark in the fifth and sixth meetings.In the original process, a teacher was asked to prepare a shortlesson (usually 15-20 minutes) for a small group of learnerswho may not have been her own students. This wasvideotaped, using VHS. After the lesson, the teacher, teachingcolleagues, a master teacher and the students together viewedthe videotape and commented on what they saw happening,referencing the teacher's learning objectives. Seeing the videoand getting comments from colleagues and students providedteachers with an often intense “under the microscope” view oftheir teaching. They were trying to find out what had worked,which aspects had fallen short, and what needed to be done toenhance their teaching technique.After having several treatments for the, the lecturer and theother students observed the microteaching or teaching practicein fifth until sixth meetings to measure what they had achievedalong the training and find out whether the participants haddeveloped or not compared to their baseline level. The lecturerused the Participant’s Teaching in English PerformanceAssessment Rubric to measure their level in the microteaching.Using rubrics is an easy way to assess and grade students’papers and tasks. Rubrics are descriptive scoring tools that aredeveloped by teachers or other evaluators to guide the analysisof the products or processes of students' works (Moskal,2000).Then the last stage of the research is reflecting. It wasconducted to determine whether the applied material wasappropriate or not. If there were some problems or obstaclesduring the process, the Microteaching lesson should be donemuch better in the next cycle. The second cycle was startedfrom seventh until sixteenth meetings by conducting the samestages in classroom action research.III. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONThe results of this research were taken from the finalperformance of each student in two cycles. The lecturerobserved the students’ microteaching practice by measuringthe level of learning process categories through a rubricinvolving these teaching aspects teachers usually do; rcement,independent talk, and closing.TABLE IPARTICIPANT’S TEACHING IN ENGLISH PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT RUBRICTeaching Aspects4321I. OpeningParticipant is fully correct to beable to greet the students andcheck the attendants.Participant is correctly to be ableto greet the students and checkthe attendants understand bly.Participant is correctly ableto greet the students.Participant is able to greet thestudents understandably.II. ApperceptionParticipant is able effectivelyand correctly to explain thepurpose of the lesson andbrainstorm the students.Participant is able to explain thepurpose of the lesson correctlyand brainstorm the studentsunderstand bly.Participant is correctly ableto explain the purpose of thelesson.Participant is able to explain thepurpose of the lessonunderstandably.Participant is able to explain anddescribe the material throughspeech and Q&A correctly.Participant is able to explain thematerial through speechcorrectly and Q&Aunderstandbly.Participant is able to explainthe material through speechcorrectly.Participant is able to explain thematerial through speechunderstandably.IV. DiscussionParticipant is able to have adiscussion with students anddirect the students to have theirown discussion correctly.Participant is able to have adiscussion with studentscorrectly and direct the studentsto have their own discussionunderstandbly.Participant is able to have adiscussion with studentscorrectly.Participant is able to have adiscussion with studentsunderstandably.V. ReinforcementParticipant is able to providevarious verbal and tokenreinforcements correctly.VI. Independent TaskParticipant is able to direct thestudents to have independenttask and discuss it correctly.VII. ClosingParticipant along with thestudents are able drawconclusion and end the lessoncorrectlyIII. ExplanationParticipant is able to providevarious verbal and tokenreinforcements understandbly.Participant is able to direct thestudents to have independenttask correctly and discuss itunderstandbly.Participant along with thestudents are able drawconclusion understandably andend the lesson correctlyIn Indonesia, science subject are taught in integrated waysthat cover physics, biology, chemistry and astronomyParticipant is able to provideParticipant is able to providevarious verbalmonotonous verbalreinforcements understandreinforcements understand bly.bly.Participant is able to directthe students to haveindependent task correctly.Participant is able to direct thestudents to have independenttask understandbly.Participant is able drawconclusion understandablyand end the lesson correctlyParticipant is able to end thelesson correctlycategories. Because of that reason, the students of ScienceEducation Program are expected to teach integrated science in55

International Journal of Humanities and Management Sciences (IJHMS) Volume 2, Issue 2 (2014) ISSN 2320–4044 (Online)Junior High School level. Moreover they should be able tocombine those categories into one topic. For instance, the topicof environment pollution are covered astronomy, physics,chemistry, and biology. Figure 1 shows the relationshipbetween all of the categories in one topic.No1234567TABLE IIIEVALUATION RESULT OF TEACHING ASPECTSTotal inAspectCycle einforcement41Independent Task47Closing67Total inCycle II84686554515474On the first cycle, 50% of the students performed in averagescore, 29% had a good score, and only 21% of the studentshad a very good teaching performance. It means that on thenext cycle, the planning and acting stages should be improvedin order to get better result. From the Table 3, it could be seenthat on the first cycle, the lowest total of teaching aspect isreinforcement and the highest total is opening. The explanationaspect had a quite high total; it shows that the students have agood background and knowledge of science.Based on the first cycle result, the lecturer had reflectionand tried to improve the teaching material. The lecturer reorganized the materials by adding some new and simpleclassroom expressions. Moreover, the lecturer also suggestedthe students to use interesting and interactive media forteaching. Since many of the science teaching materials areabstract, it is better if the teacher use media in order to makeclear explanation. The lecturer’s action in improving thestudents’ teaching ability is suitable with the four mainobjectives of microteaching stated by Wang Ping (2013); thatis identify skills that require improvement. Then on the secondcycle, the result shows a good increase of the students’performance. The result shows that only 17% had an averagescore, 37% had a good score, and 46% students had a verygood teaching performance. On the result of teaching aspect,some of the teaching aspects have a significant progress.Lecturer has paid some attention to teachers candidates’experiences regarding the process and ways in which theirconceptions and/or identities as teachers start to emerge anddevelop (Hong, 2010; Yaman, 2010; Ogeyik, 2009). One ofOgeyik’s (2009) concluding statements was that microteachingexperiences might play a key role in developing prospectiveteachers’ professional identity in preservice educationprograms. Thus, student teachers developed their peculiarteaching conceptions and/or identities through their actualinvolvement in both executing mini lessons with their peersand observing their peers teaching.Regarding to this research result, hopefully it could help thestudents of Science Education Program in improving theirability, especially teaching Science in English. The series oftreatments that they have already got, such as classroomexpressions drilling and teaching performance with their peers,could be their classroom experiences so that the teachinganxiety during their practice in the real classroom activity willbe reduced . Moreover, the same teaching material ofmicroteaching class could be applied and developed byanother teacher, lecturer, or trainer in accordance to thesudents’ needs.Fig. 1 Example of Integrated Science MaterialThe lecturer gave a score from one to four for eachcategory. For example, the first category is opening. If theteacher candidates (the students of Microteaching classsubject) were able to greet the students and at the same timecheck their attendance, they would get full 4 points. Then theywould get 3 points if they were able to greet the studentscorrectly and check the students’ attendance understandably.They would get 2 points if the teachers were able to greet thestudents correctly. Then they would only get 1 point if theteacher candidates were able only to greet the studentsunderstandably. Besides that, the term “correctly” means herethat the utterances they delivered to the students were correctaccording to some linguistic features consisted; the soundsystem including pronunciation, intonation, and stress, then thegrammar of each utterances, and the vocabulary. Otherwise theterm “understandably” closer means to the utterances theteacher candidates delivered were not fully correct inaccordance with some linguistics features stated above, yetthose could still be understood and replied by the students in acertain contexts.After having some evaluation of students performance inmicroteaching by using Participant’s Teaching in EnglishPerformance Assessment Rubric, the lecturer calculated thescore and found the result. Table 2 shows the result ofstudents’ evaluation in two cycles and Table 3 shows the resultevaluation of teaching aspects.TABLE IIEVALUATION RESULT OF STUDENTS’ MICROTEACHING PERFORMANCECycle ICycle ercentageStudentsStudents17 – 14 Average1250%417%215–21 Good729%937%Very322–28521%1146%Good56

International Journal of Humanities and Management Sciences (IJHMS) Volume 2, Issue 2 (2014) ISSN 2320–4044 (Online)IV. CONCLUSIONClassroom expressions material in the form of scaffoldingtalks worked quite effectively to improve Science EducationProgram students’ ability to teach and deliver the sciencematerials in classroom. This material and treatment in the formof teacher’s scaffolding talks are really needed by them whoshould teach using English. The expressions play an importantrole as the survival tool so they can easily do that teachingusing English is not as hard as they think. However, they candig their potencies to accomplish arrangement of English forteaching and interact with students in a short time.Yet, further study and research due to this alternative is verymuch needed since it only describe the implementation. Thenext researchers could create a new material for students inmicroteaching sucject that can be more improved theirteaching ability using 11][12][13][14]Agustien, Helena I.R. 2008. Compilation of Scaffolding Talk.Semarang: UNNESAllen, D and Ryan, K., 1969. Micro-teaching; Reading, Massachusetts:Addison: Wesley Publishing CompanyFaridi, A. 2011. Bahasa Inggris untuk Guru Imersi dan RSBI.Semarang: UNNESGibbons, Pauline. 2002. Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning:Teaching Second Language in the mainstream classroom. USA:Heineman.Hong, J. Y. 2010. Pre-service and beginning teachers‟professionalidentity and its relation to dropping out of the profession. Teaching andTeacher Education, 26(8), 1530-1543.Johnson and Swain. 1997. Immersion Program. In Ofelia Garcia andColin Baker.Moskal, Barbara M. 2000. Scoring Rubrics: what, when, and net/getvn.asp?v 7&n 3.Nugroho, Imam Adhi. 2013. The Development of Classroom Prefabricated Expressions as the Material of English Teacher TrainingConducted in TK Negeri Bertaraf Internasional Semarang. Thesis (NotPublished).Ogeyik, M. C. 2009. Attitudes of the student teachers in Englishlanguage teaching programs towards microteaching technique. EnglishLanguage teaching, 2(3), 205-212.Slattery, Mary and Willis, Jane. 2001. English for Primary Teacher.Oxford: Oxford University Press.Turney, C. et al. 1983. Sydney Micro Skills Redeveloped: Series 1Handbook. Adelaide: Griffin Press Limited.Wang Ping. 2013. Micro-Teaching: A Powerful Tool To EmbeddingThe English Teacher Certification Testing In The Development OfEnglish Teaching Methodologies. International Journal of EnglishLanguage and Literature Studies, 2(3):163-175.Widiyatmoko, A and Nurmasitah, S. 2013. A Study of ClassroomInteraction in Microteaching Class Conducting in English: The Case atFifth Year of Science Education Study Program of Semarang StateUniversity. International Journal of Humanities and ManagementSciences (IJHMS). Volume 1, Issue 3: 191-195.Yaman, S. 2010. Conceptual change of pre-service teachers: Alongitudinal action research study in ELT. Procedia Social andBehavioral Sciences 3, 227–236.57

Semarang State University. The students get microteaching subject to give teaching experience and basic teaching skills before they come into the real class activity. The students are teacher candidate who are expected to teach science in schools, including international or bilingual s