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CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-74CHAPTERSAP ERP Integration Overviewwith Other SystemsSo far in the first three chapters of this book we have studied an overview of SAPbusiness suite applications and the NetWeaver Application Server ABAP and Javatechnology foundation that it runs on. In this chapter we will study the central role theSAP ERP system has in an organization and its network integration into the organization’senterprise infrastructure, as well as to the external systems outside the organization and theSAP support infrastructure. This chapter covers various communication and integrationtechnologies that “bind” different SAP ABAP and Java-based applications, along with thethird-party enterprise solutions, external vendors, and SAP support organization into anenterprise-wide SAP solution adding value and driving the business needs of an organization.This chapter is also intended to give an overview to enterprise architects as to how a SAPsolution would fit into an enterprise-wide architecture.Figure 4-1 illustrates the integration scenarios that could come into play with theimplementation and operations of a SAP ERP system for a hypothetical SAP customer.The remaining sections of this chapter will use this hypothetical scenario to explain thecommon integration scenario groupings and the underlying communication protocol andstandards used by SAP.Basic Communication in SAP Business SolutionsSAP business applications use the following protocols and standards for communicationand data transfer between different systems. One of the following basic network andcommunication standards is at the heart of the different integration scenarios with the SAPERP system. Let us look into the details of each of the following protocols and standards.TCP/IPIn SAP business applications, network communication is with the Transmission ControlProtocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) standards. During the system build phase, the requiredIP address is assigned to the host and necessary configuration is performed where a particularSAP business solution is planned to be installed.49ch04.indd 499/27/11 2:00:10 PM

CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-7External Vendor EDI SystemVendor LANCustomer LANSolution ManagerSAPCentralAdmin &MonitoringEDISystemSAP CRMSAProuterTaxwareD&BSAP SCMOpenviewSAP ERPServiceDeskFileNetMercuryITGTopcallSAP PIuPerformIn-houseSAPExpertAutosysTivoliSAP BICUASAP LANSAP SRMSAPPortalSAP SupportSAProuterCustomer FirewallSAP PLMSLDFigure 4-1WANSAP FirewallSAP NetWeaver Introduction and ArchitectureMicrosoftOutLookEnterprise Wide Operations TeamPart I:Vendor Firewall50Level 1SAPSupportCAHelpdeskLegacyInterfacesERP integration scenariosNetwork PortsSAP business applications listen at clearly defined port numbers for incoming networkconnections. Table 4-1 lists the most important port numbers and the naming conventionsand rules used for defining them for ABAP-based SAP applications.ServiceDefault TCP Service NameDefault Port #RangeDispatchersapdp## where ## is the system number of the instance32003200–3299MessageServersapms SID where SID System Identifier3600FreeGatewaysapgw## where ## is the system number of the instance33003300–3399ICM HTTP80## where ## system number of the instance8000FreeICM HTTPS443## where ## system number of the instanceNot ActiveFreeICM SMTP25Not Active25Table 4-1ch04.indd 50Network Ports in SAP ABAP Applications9/27/11 2:00:10 PM

CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-7Chapter 4:SAP ERP Integration Overview with Other SystemsServiceDefault TCP Service NameRangeHTTP5##00 where ## is the system number ofthe instance5000050000–59900HTTP over SSL5##01 where ## is the system number ofthe instance5000150001–59901Telnet5##08 where ## is the system number ofthe instance5000850008–59908Table 4-2PART IDefault Port #51Network Ports in SAP Java ApplicationsSAP Java–based applications use a different set of network ports. Table 4-2 lists the mostimportant ports and rules for using the SAP Java–based applications.In UNIX operating systems, the services file maps port numbers to the named services.This entry gets there during the time of the SAP installation of a given business solution.The services file location in a UNIX operating system is /etc/services. If, for any reason, theservice file entry is missing, then the communication between the SAP applications will belost and can be restored by adding an entry manually. Usually it requires a root userpermission to make any changes to the etc/services file.RFCRemote Function Call (RFC) is SAP’s communication interface. RFC communication betweenSAP business solutions involves an RFC client and an RFC server. The RFC server providesfunction modules. RFC clients call one of the function modules, pass on the data, and geta reply (value) back from the RFC server.Setting Up an RFC ConnectionTransaction code SM59 is used to create new RFC connections or to alter an existingconnection. Several types of RFC connections can be set up in SAP systems using SM59transaction code. RFC connection types “3” (connects to another ABAP system) and “T”(TCP/IP Connection) are most often used.The following procedure is used to set up an RFC connection type “3” in SAP systems.Use transaction code SM59 in the SAPGUI command line (see Figure 4-2).Select the connection type ABAP Connections, and click the Create icon. This will openthe screen shown in Figure 4-3. Enter the following fields to complete the RFC destinationconfiguration: RFC Destination DescriptionName of the RFC destination of the target ABAP system.Enter a text description. Target Host Enter the hostname or the IP address of the target ABAP system. System Numberch04.indd 51Enter the target ABAP system number.9/27/11 2:00:10 PM

CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-752Part I:SAP NetWeaver Introduction and ArchitectureCopyright by SAP AGFigure 4-2Initial RFC creation screenClick the Logon & Security tab, and enter the logon information (Client, User, andPassword).After this, save your connection entries by clicking the Save button, as in Figure 4-4.If you receive any message window saying the user can log in to the remote system, justclick OK and continue. Your connection entries will be saved. The next step is to test if ourRFC connection is working properly. Click the Connection Test button at the top of the screen.You will see the screen shown in Figure 4-5 if all of your connection entries are correct.This is a basic connection test. This does not test the authorizations of the user who initiatedthe connection. In order to test if this user has the authorizations to initiate an RFC connectionand successfully log in to the target system, go back to your RFC connection parameters screenand use the menu option Utilities Test Authorization Test.This test should be successful as well before you can proceed with your work in thetarget ABAP system or use this connection for noninteractive login by application. You canuse the similar procedure to create RFC connections to different ABAP systems in your SAPch04.indd 529/27/11 2:00:10 PM

CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-7Chapter 4:SAP ERP Integration Overview with Other Systems53PART ICopyright by SAP AGFigure 4-3RFC connection entriessystem landscape. Please note that a successful authorization test is mandatory, as this testexecutes a user login along with password verification and authorization test in the targetRFC-connected system. A successful authorization test ensures that the RFC connection iscompletely ready for use in an application.Several other RFC connection types are used to integrate the SAP system landscape. TheRFC connection type “T” refers to starting an external program using TCP/IP. One example ofsuch need in a SAP system landscape integration scenario is within the SAP Process Integrationapplication. In this scenario the Process Integration (PI) ABAP components integrate with theSAP PI Java component using this connection type.The SAP PI ABAP system integrates with the SAP Java–based PI component referred toas the System Landscape Directory (SLD) using an RFC connection called SAPSLDAPI.Figure 4-6 shows the details that have to be entered in setting up a TCP/IP RFC connectiontype. In this type of connection, a registered server program ID is entered in the RFCconnection on the ABAP side, and the exact same entry is made in the JCO RFC providerservice on the Java side. Once the settings are complete, the connection test can be executed.ch04.indd 539/27/11 2:00:11 PM

CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-754Part I:SAP NetWeaver Introduction and ArchitectureCopyright by SAP AGFigure 4-4Login fields in maintaining an RFC connectionTable 4-3 lists all available RFC connection types that are used in the integration of SAPand different applications in an organization.One of the common problems encountered while integrating older SAP releases with SAPreleases starting with NW 7.0 is the changes to the password rules. Starting with NW 7.0, SAPsupports a password length up to 40 characters and differentiates between uppercase andlowercase passwords. Earlier SAP releases supported a password length of eight charactersand any lowercase passwords were automatically converted to uppercase. In order to resolvethis issue easily, it is recommended to use an uppercase password of up to eight characters inlength where you are integrating a newer SAP release into older SAP releases in a systemlandscape. OSS Notes 1023437 and 862989 provide additional details and recommendations forpasswords that will help with integrating older SAP releases into the newer release landscape.SAPconnectSAPconnect allows a SAP ABAP system to send external communication to systems such asa SAP-certified fax, page, and e-mail solutions. SAPconnect can be set up using transactioncode SCOT. The following procedure is used to set up a Simple Mail Transport Protocolch04.indd 549/27/11 2:00:11 PM

CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-7Chapter 4:SAP ERP Integration Overview with Other Systems55PART ICopyright by SAP AGFigure 4-5Successful connection testRFC ConnectionTypeDescriptionIABAP systems connected to the same database3Connection to other R/3-based ABAP system2Connection to other R/2-based ABAP systemLLogical connection referring to other physical RFC connectionSStart external program using IBM SNA (System Network Architecture)XConnection via ABAP driver routines or ABAP device driversMAsynchronous RFC connections to ABAP systems using CMC (X.400 protocol)HHTTP connection to an ABAP systemGHTTP connection to an external serverTable 4-3 SAP RFC Connection Typesch04.indd 559/27/11 2:00:11 PM

CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-756Part I:SAP NetWeaver Introduction and ArchitectureCopyright by SAP AGFigure 4-6SAP RFC connection type T(SMTP) connection so that e-mails can be sent from SAP applications to external e-mailsystems. The integration settings are performed in transaction code SCOT. Enter transactioncode SCOT, double-click the SMTP node, and enter the configuration as per Figure 4-7.Change the mail host for your environment. Click the Set button beside the Internetaddress type, type an asterisk (*) in the address area, and click either the check mark iconor Enter. After this step click Continue. Next, schedule a send job by clicking the Job icon onthe top or pressing shift–f7 and clicking and choosing the schedule job for all address types.Choose Schedule Immediately, leave the other defaults, and continue. This will schedule thesend job. Next, make sure you maintain the e-mail address of the users in SU01 transaction.You can monitor the sent jobs by using the SOST transaction code.Application Link Enabling/Electronic Data Interchange (ALE/EDI)The basis of this ALE (SAP-to-SAP business data exchange) and EDI (SAP-to-EDI systembusiness data exchange) communication mechanism is the Intermediate Documents (IDOC).An IDOC acts as a data container facilitating the exchange of business information betweench04.indd 569/27/11 2:00:11 PM

CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-7Chapter 4:SAP ERP Integration Overview with Other Systems57PART ICopyright by SAP AGFigure 4-7SCOT configurationSAP systems and non-SAP systems. The basis of IDOC generation is the message types.Message types identify the usage of specific business data. One example of a SAP standardmessage type is “CREMAS.” CREMAS is the vendor master data distribution message type.Transaction code WE81 shows all the message types that have been delivered along with theSAP standard install and customer-created ones as well.SAProuterSAProuter is an SAP program that is used to securely connect to the SAP support. There isa SAProuter program running on both the customer site and the SAP support organizationsite. The SAProuter program is installed inside the firewall and acts as an “application levelgateway.” This adds another layer of network security for both the SAP customer and SAP.More specific details will be discussed in Chapter 20.SAP EPR Integration with Other Business Suite ApplicationsThis group of SAP business applications includes SAP Business Suite 7 (SAP ERP 6 withEhP4, SAP SRM 7.0, SAP CRM 7.0, SAP SCM 7.0, and SAP PLM 7.0). SAP ERP 6 integrateswith the other SAP Business Suite applications, primarily with the RFC connections. Eachof the Business Suite applications in this group has special interfaces, but the underlyingcommunication mechanism is via RFC connection over TCP/IP protocol.ch04.indd 579/27/11 2:00:11 PM

CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-758Part I:SAP NetWeaver Introduction and ArchitectureSAP ERP Integration with Other NetWeaver ApplicationsSAP ERP 6 integration with other NetWeaver applications, such as SAP BW 7.0, SAP NetWeaverPortal 7.0, and SAP PI 7.1, is based on RFC connections as well.SAP ERP Integration with Other Third-Party Enterprise ApplicationsSAP ERP 6 integrates with a number of third-party solutions, each performing an enterprisewide service. RFC connections are used to integrate these tools with SAP ERP 6 systems, andSAP usually provides the interfaces to these third-party tools. Third-party vendors also workclosely with SAP, who provides certification of their products. Some of the SAP-certifiedthird-party products include Tivoli This is an IBM product certified with SAP for performing activities such asbackup and monitoring capabilities. AutosysThis provides enterprise-wide job scheduling functions. FileNet This provides archiving capabilities. Open View Mercury ITGThis provides enterprise-wide monitoring and reporting capabilities.This provides change management capabilities. uPerform This provides training solutions for SAP end users. TopcallThis provides faxing capabilities. Taxware D&BThis provides sales and use tax calculation for SAP systems.This provides the business credit check capabilities for SAP systems.This list is not comprehensive. Several hundreds of third-party enterprise-widesolutions are certified by SAP and can be integrated using one of the communicationprotocols discussed in this chapter. Table 4-4 provides the SAP certified partner directorylink. This link will help SAP customers search for all SAP-certified third-party products.Some of the third-party tools require some additional configuration at setup before theycan be used. Each of the third-party vendors publishes an install and configuration guideproviding details of the third-party connector tool and the communication setup that isrequired before using the tool with the SAP solutions.SAP ctories/searchpartner.epxSAP-certified ce-certificationsSAP-certifiable integrationscenariosTable 4-4ch04.indd 58Links to SAP-Certified Third-Party Products9/27/11 2:00:11 PM

CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-7Chapter 4:SAP ERP Integration Overview with Other Systems59SAP Business Suite Integration with Solution ManagerPART IWith the growing number and complexity of SAP business applications, it is becoming difficultto administer and operate the solution in an effective manner. SAP Solution Manager isrecommended as a central system for all administration and monitoring activities of the SAPsystem landscape of an organization. SAP has delivered a number of capabilities in the SAPSolution Manager such as change and transport management, service desk functionality,monitoring and reporting capabilities, Central User Administration (CUA), hosting centralSystem Landscape Directory (SLD), enterprise-wide NetWeaver administration, and end-toend root cause analysis with tools such as Solution Manager Diagnostics (SMD) and WilyIntroscope to help manage the entire landscape. More specific details will be discussed inChapter 20.SAP Solution Integration with Enterprise-Wide OperationsOne of the key points from an operational perspective when integrating a complex system suchas SAP is to integrate it effectively with existing enterprise solutions of a given organization sothat the operations of the solution will be effectively managed by the enterprise-wide operationsteam. Different enterprise-wide third-party tools are integrated with the new SAP system, andthe escalation procedures are documented and widely distributed so that the operations teamcan provide the agreed service level agreements (SLA) to the business side of the organization.Usually, the operations team is trained in the new SAP product’s basic operations, such astaking backups, resetting user passwords, scheduling jobs, and addressing printing issues. Theoperations team will escalate the issue to an in-house expert to resolve a reported SAP issue.SAP Solution Integration with SAP SupportSAP is a complex business solution and needs support from SAP resources from time to time.SAP Solution Manager is integrated into the SAP support organization via a SAProuterconnection. SAP support resources can be granted access to the customer’s SAP systems bythe customer’s system administrators using this SAProuter connection. Usually, the supportprocess starts with an internal help desk ticket logged by an end user reporting an SAP issue.Solution Manager service desk functionality or a third-party enterprise-wide help desksolution such as Unicenter is used for logging the help desk tickets. Internal SAP experts atthe organization will first try and resolve the reported problem. If this is not possible, an SAPmessage is logged by the customer at the SAP portal (http//service.sap.com/message). SAPresources log into client systems if required to resolve the reported issue.SAP Solution Integration with EDI and Other External VendorsSAP Solution Manager integrates and exchanges data with external vendors’ EDI systemsusing integration products such as Gentran. Gentran is one of the leading EDI and datatranslation solutions.ch04.indd 599/27/11 2:00:11 PM

CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-760Part I:SAP NetWeaver Introduction and ArchitectureSAP PI as an Enterprise Integration HubSAP Process Integration is intended as an integration hub for all of the organization’s interfaces.PI 7.1 is the most current release and includes a number of performance improvements, withservice-oriented architecture capabilities, and is well positioned to standardize and optimize allof the enterprise interface requirements. It avoids point-to-point interface connections and usesnative integration capabilities between different SAP solutions, which helps reduce integrationcosts in a client’s landscape.Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is emerging as a standard for developing interfacesin an organization. In SOA, interfaces are developed as enterprise services so that they can beconsumed by a number of other applications across the enterprise. SOA is an architecturalstandard that requires the functionality of the interfaces be published as a service in a platformindependent fashion.SAP provides a methodology referred to as Enterprise SOA to implement SOA projectsthat includes additional capabilities that help clients build business solutions that have a lotof reuse capabilities within an enterprise. Enterprise SOA includes the following stages in aservice interface development lifecycle: Business requirements gathering Service modeling Service definition Service implementation Service publishing Service consumptionSAP PI provides SOA tools for facilitating organizations to build and consume enterpriseservices. Different components of the SAP PI 7.1 systems are shown in Figure 4-8.Copyright by SAP AGFigure 4-8ch04.indd 60SAP PI 7.1 system and integration components9/27/11 2:00:12 PM

CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-7Chapter 4:SAP ERP Integration Overview with Other Systems61Enterprise Service RepositoryPART IEnterprise Service Repository (ESR) is a repository for the enterprise service inventory ofassets built by an organization over time. This includes tools such as Enterprise ServicesBuilder and Services Registry. Enterprise Services Builder helps to build enterprise servicesbased on enterprise SOA standards. The services are then published in the Services Registryfor enterprise-wide consumption.System Landscape Directory (SLD)System Landscape Directory (SLD) is a central provider of all software product and componentdefinitions to the ESR. New software product and component definitions are created in SLDand are exported to the ESR to begin the development of the service interfaces.Integration DirectoryIntegration Directory is the central configuration tool that helps in configuring messageprocessing, communication and security, and routing rules for message flow.Configuring and MonitoringRuntime Workbench and NetWeaver Administrator (NWA) are two tools provided by SAPfor monitoring and administering the PI solution. SAP is moving more monitoring andadministration capabilities to the NWA tool, consistent with centralizing these activitiesacross the entire SAP solution in a client landscape.Integration ServerIntegration Server is the runtime environment for the service interfaces and is installed asan ABAP component. Other PI components, such as ESR, SLD, and ID, are installed as Javaapplications.Advanced Adapter EngineThis component consists of a number of adapters, such as the file adapter, IDOC adapterand JMS adapter. Theses adapters provide built-in mediation, mapping, queuing, and othercapabilities between provider and consumer business applications. Advanced AdapterEngine can be installed as a central adapter engine along with Integration Server, or asa separate installation.Enterprise Service BusEnterprise Service Bus (ESB) is an enterprise SOA environment combining the differentservice providers and consumers on a single communication infrastructure that providesfunctions such as runtime services, thereby enabling service-based communication.The SAP PI solution with all the aforementioned capabilities is thus emerging as a centralservice interface hub for organizations.ch04.indd 619/27/11 2:00:12 PM

CompRef8 / SAP Basis Administration Handbook, NetWeaver Edition / Mereddy / 348-762Part I:SAP NetWeaver Introduction and ArchitectureSummary SAP ERP plays a central role in an organization’s enterprise, integrating with severalother SAP and non-SAP systems. Industry-standard TCP/IP and RFC communication is the basis of most of the SAPapplications’ network communication and integration. SM59 transaction is used to set up an RFC connection in SAP systems. The SAPconnect interface and SCOT transaction is used to set up communicationservices such as e-mail integration, faxing, and paging integration in SAP. ALE (Application Link Enabling) provides the basis for loosely coupling SAPbusiness applications to exchange business data in different integration scenarios. EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) standards form one of the basis for exchangingdata between SAP and outside vendors. The SAProuter program helps to establish a connection between customers’ SAPsystems and the SAP support organization using secure methods of networkintegration. The SAP PI system is emerging as an organization-wide integration hub in customersites that have SAP as their main ERP system. The SAP PI system provides tools to develop enterprise services that enable SOA.Additional Resources SAP Process Integrationwww.sdn.sap.com/irj/sdn/nw-pi71 SAP Solution Manager eLearning arningch04.indd 629/27/11 2:00:12 PM

Figure 4-1 ERP integration scenarios WAN SAP ERP Customer LAN SAP LAN SAProuter SAProuter SAP Support SAP Firewall External Vendor EDI System Vendor LAN Solution Manager SAP CRM EDI System SAP PI Legacy Interfaces SAP SCM SAP SRM SAP PLM SAP BI SLD CUA SAP Portal SAP Central A