Transcription

Wireshark User's Guide27846 for Wireshark 1.0.0Ulf Lamping,Richard Sharpe, NS Computer Software and Services P/LEd Warnicke,

Wireshark User's Guide: 27846for Wireshark 1.0.0by Ulf Lamping, Richard Sharpe, and Ed WarnickeCopyright 2004-2008 Ulf Lamping Richard Sharpe Ed WarnickePermission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU General Public License, Version 2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation.All logos and trademarks in this document are property of their respective owner.

Table of ContentsPreface . ix1. Foreword . ix2. Who should read this document? . x3. Acknowledgements . xi4. About this document . xii5. Where to get the latest copy of this document? . xiii6. Providing feedback about this document . xiv1. Introduction . 11.1. What is Wireshark? . 11.1.1. Some intended purposes . 11.1.2. Features . 11.1.3. Live capture from many different network media . 21.1.4. Import files from many other capture programs . 21.1.5. Export files for many other capture programs . 21.1.6. Many protocol decoders . 31.1.7. Open Source Software . 31.1.8. What Wireshark is not . 31.2. System Requirements . 41.2.1. General Remarks . 41.2.2. Microsoft Windows . 41.2.3. Unix / Linux . 51.3. Where to get Wireshark? . 61.4. A brief history of Wireshark . 71.5. Development and maintenance of Wireshark . 81.6. Reporting problems and getting help . 91.6.1. Website . 91.6.2. Wiki . 91.6.3. FAQ . 91.6.4. Mailing Lists . 91.6.5. Reporting Problems . 101.6.6. Reporting Crashes on UNIX/Linux platforms . 101.6.7. Reporting Crashes on Windows platforms . 112. Building and Installing Wireshark . 132.1. Introduction . 132.2. Obtaining the source and binary distributions . 142.3. Before you build Wireshark under UNIX . 152.4. Building Wireshark from source under UNIX . 182.5. Installing the binaries under UNIX . 202.5.1. Installing from rpm's under Red Hat and alike . 202.5.2. Installing from deb's under Debian . 202.5.3. Installing from portage under Gentoo Linux . 202.5.4. Installing from packages under FreeBSD . 202.6. Troubleshooting during the install on Unix . 212.7. Building from source under Windows . 222.8. Installing Wireshark under Windows . 232.8.1. Install Wireshark . 232.8.2. Manual WinPcap Installation . 252.8.3. Update Wireshark . 252.8.4. Update WinPcap . 252.8.5. Uninstall Wireshark . 262.8.6. Uninstall WinPcap . 263. User Interface . 283.1. Introduction . 28iv

Wireshark User's Guide3.2. Start Wireshark . 293.3. The Main window . 303.3.1. Main Window Navigation . 313.4. The Menu . 323.5. The "File" menu . 343.6. The "Edit" menu . 373.7. The "View" menu . 393.8. The "Go" menu . 443.9. The "Capture" menu . 463.10. The "Analyze" menu . 483.11. The "Statistics" menu . 503.12. The "Tools" menu . 533.13. The "Help" menu . 543.14. The "Main" toolbar . 563.15. The "Filter" toolbar . 593.16. The "Packet List" pane . 613.17. The "Packet Details" pane . 623.18. The "Packet Bytes" pane . 633.19. The Statusbar . 644. Capturing Live Network Data . 674.1. Introduction . 674.2. Prerequisites . 684.3. Start Capturing . 694.4. The "Capture Interfaces" dialog box . 704.5. The "Capture Options" dialog box . 724.5.1. Capture frame . 734.5.2. Capture File(s) frame . 744.5.3. Stop Capture. frame . 744.5.4. Display Options frame . 754.5.5. Name Resolution frame . 754.5.6. Buttons . 754.6. The "Interface Details" dialog box . 764.7. Capture files and file modes . 774.8. Link-layer header type . 794.9. Filtering while capturing . 804.9.1. Automatic Remote Traffic Filtering . 814.10. While a Capture is running . . 834.10.1. Stop the running capture . 834.10.2. Restart a running capture . 845. File Input / Output and Printing . 865.1. Introduction . 865.2. Open capture files . 875.2.1. The "Open Capture File" dialog box . 875.2.2. Input File Formats . 895.3. Saving captured packets . 925.3.1. The "Save Capture File As" dialog box . 925.3.2. Output File Formats . 945.4. Merging capture files . 965.4.1. The "Merge with Capture File" dialog box . 965.5. File Sets . 985.5.1. The "List Files" dialog box . 985.6. Exporting data . 1005.6.1. The "Export as Plain Text File" dialog box . 1005.6.2. The "Export as PostScript File" dialog box . 1015.6.3. The "Export as CSV (Comma Separated Values) File" dialog box . 1015.6.4. The "Export as C Arrays (packet bytes) file" dialog box . 1025.6.5. The "Export as PSML File" dialog box . 1025.6.6. The "Export as PDML File" dialog box . 103v

Wireshark User's Guide5.6.7. The "Export selected packet bytes" dialog box .5.6.8. The "Export Objects" dialog box .5.7. Printing packets .5.7.1. The "Print" dialog box .5.8. The Packet Range frame .5.9. The Packet Format frame .6. Working with captured packets .6.1. Viewing packets you have captured .6.2. Pop-up menus .6.2.1. Pop-up menu of the "Packet List" pane .6.2.2. Pop-up menu of the "Packet Details" pane .6.3. Filtering packets while viewing .6.4. Building display filter expressions .6.4.1. Display filter fields .6.4.2. Comparing values .6.4.3. Combining expressions .6.4.4. A common mistake .6.5. The "Filter Expression" dialog box .6.6. Defining and saving filters .6.7. Defining and saving filter macros .6.8. Finding packets .6.8.1. The "Find Packet" dialog box .6.8.2. The "Find Next" command .6.8.3. The "Find Previous" command .6.9. Go to a specific packet .6.9.1. The "Go Back" command .6.9.2. The "Go Forward" command .6.9.3. The "Go to Packet" dialog box .6.9.4. The "Go to Corresponding Packet" command .6.9.5. The "Go to First Packet" command .6.9.6. The "Go to Last Packet" command .6.10. Marking packets .6.11. Time display formats and time references .6.11.1. Packet time referencing .7. Advanced Topics .7.1. Introduction .7.2. Following TCP streams .7.2.1. The "Follow TCP Stream" dialog box .7.3. Expert Infos .7.3.1. Expert Info Entries .7.3.2. "Expert Info Composite" dialog .7.3.3. "Colorized" Protocol Details Tree .7.3.4. "Expert" Packet List Column (optional) .7.4. Time Stamps .7.4.1. Wireshark internals .7.4.2. Capture file formats .7.4.3. Accuracy .7.5. Time Zones .7.5.1. Set your computer's time correctly! .7.5.2. Wireshark and Time Zones .7.6. Packet Reassembling .7.6.1. What is it? .7.6.2. How Wireshark handles it .7.7. Name Resolution .7.7.1. Name Resolution drawbacks .7.7.2. Ethernet name resolution (MAC layer) .7.7.3. IP name resolution (network layer) .7.7.4. IPX name resolution (network layer) 150152152152154154154155155

Wireshark User's Guide7.7.5. TCP/UDP port name resolution (transport layer) .7.8. Checksums .7.8.1. Wireshark checksum validation .7.8.2. Checksum offloading .8. Statistics .8.1. Introduction .8.2. The "Summary" window .8.3. The "Protocol Hierarchy" window .8.4. Conversations .8.4.1. What is a Conversation? .8.4.2. The "Conversations" window .8.4.3. The protocol specific "Conversation List" windows .8.5. Endpoints .8.5.1. What is an Endpoint? .8.5.2. The "Endpoints" window .8.5.3. The protocol specific "Endpoint List" windows .8.6. The "IO Graphs" window .8.7. WLAN Traffic Statistics .8.8. Service Response Time .8.8.1. The "Service Response Time DCE-RPC" window .8.9. The protocol specific statistics windows .9. Customizing Wireshark .9.1. Introduction .9.2. Start Wireshark from the command line .9.3. Packet colorization .9.4. Control Protocol dissection .9.4.1. The "Enabled Protocols" dialog box .9.4.2. User Specified Decodes .9.4.3. Show User Specified Decodes .9.5. Preferences .9.5.1. Interface Options .9.6. Configuration Profiles .9.7. User Table .9.8. Display Filter Macros .9.9. GeoIP Database Paths .9.10. Tektronix K12xx/15 RF5 protocols Table .9.11. PRES Users Context List .9.12. SCCP users Table .9.13. SMI (MIB and PIB) Modules .9.14. SMI (MIB and PIB) Paths .9.15. SNMP users Table .9.16. User DLTs protocol table .10. Lua Support in Wireshark .10.1. Introduction .10.2. Example of Dissector written in Lua .10.3. Example of Listener written in Lua .10.4. Wireshark's Lua API Reference Manual .10.4.1. Saving capture files .10.4.2. Obtaining dissection data .10.4.3. GUI support .10.4.4. Post-dissection packet analysis .10.4.5. Obtaining packet information .10.4.6. Functions for writing dissectors .10.4.7. Adding information to the dissection tree .10.4.8. Functions for handling packet data .10.4.9. Utility Functions .A. Files and Folders .A.1. Capture Files 4216222223227240241247252252

Wireshark User's GuideA.1.1. Libpcap File Contents .A.1.2. Not Saved in the Capture File .A.2. Configuration Files and Folders .A.3. Windows folders .A.3.1. Windows profiles .A.3.2. Windows Vista/XP/2000/NT roaming profiles .A.3.3. Windows temporary folder .B. Protocols and Protocol Fields .C. Wireshark Messages .C.1. Packet List Messages .C.1.1. [Malformed Packet] .C.1.2. [Packet size limited during capture] .C.2. Packet Details Messages .C.2.1. [Response in frame: 123] .C.2.2. [Request in frame: 123] .C.2.3. [Time from request: 0.123 seconds] .C.2.4. [Stream setup by PROTOCOL (frame 123)] .D. Related command line tools .D.1. Introduction .D.2. tshark: Terminal-based Wireshark .D.3. tcpdump: Capturing with tcpdump for viewing with Wireshark .D.4. dumpcap: Capturing with dumpcap for viewing with Wireshark .D.5. capinfos: Print information about capture files .D.6. editcap: Edit capture files .D.7. mergecap: Merging multiple capture files into one .D.8. text2pcap: Converting ASCII hexdumps to network captures .D.9. idl2wrs: Creating dissectors from CORBA IDL files .D.9.1. What is it? .D.9.2. Why do this? .D.9.3. How to use idl2wrs .D.9.4. TODO .D.9.5. Limitations .D.9.6. Notes .E. This Document's License (GPL) 2282284

Preface1. ForewordWireshark is one of those programs that many network managers would love to be able to use, but theyare often prevented from getting what they would like from Wireshark because of the lack of documentation.This document is part of an effort by the Wireshark team to improve the usability of Wireshark.We hope that you find it useful, and look forward to your comments.ix

Preface2. Who should read this document?The intended audience of this book is anyone using Wireshark.This book will explain all the basics and also some of the advanced features that Wireshark provides. AsWireshark has become a very complex program since the early days, not every feature of Wiresharkmay be explained in this book.This book is not intended to explain network sniffing in general and it will not provide details about specific network protocols. A lot of useful information regarding these topics can be found at the WiresharkWiki at http://wiki.wireshark.orgBy reading this book, you will learn how to install Wireshark, how to use the basic elements of thegraphical user interface (such as the menu) and what's behind some of the advanced features that are notalways obvious at first sight. It will hopefully guide you around some common problems that frequentlyappear for new (and sometimes even advanced) users of Wireshark.x

Preface3. AcknowledgementsThe authors would like to thank the whole Wireshark team for their assistance. In particular, the authorswould like to thank: Gerald Combs, for initiating the Wireshark project and funding to do this documentation. Guy Harris, for many helpful hints and a great deal of patience in reviewing this document. Gilbert Ramirez, for general encouragement and helpful hints along the way.The authors would also like to thank the following

Wireshark User's Guide 27846 for Wireshark 1.0.0 Ulf Lamping, Richard S