Miscellaneous Topics and Game Management Unit Boundaries(Licensing and feeding animals; Game Management Unit boundaries, DaltonHighway Corridor Management Area; Nonresident non-guided hunts; andprohibiting harvest of white animals)PROPOSAL 1665 AAC 92.012. Licenses and tags.Amend the requirement for licenses and tags to include game legally taken with dogs and cats asfollows:5 AAC 92.012. Licenses and tags(a) No hunting or trapping license is required of a resident under the age of 18. An appropriatelicense and big game tag are required of nonresidents, regardless of age, for hunting and trapping.No person may take waterfowl unless that person has a current, validated, federal migratory birdhunting stamp or "duck stamp" in possession as required under federal regulations. No personmay take game (except deleterious exotic wildlife) with a dog or cat, unless the dog or cat isused to find, tree, or retrieve game taken in season and in an area open to hunting inassociation with a hunting license or permit.(b) What is the issue you would like the board to address and why? In 1916 Edward HoweForbush observed that “a man may be fined 10 for killing a songbird, but he may keep any numberof cats.” Our pets, particularly cats and dogs, are capable of injuring and killing wildlife. Dogs cankill a moose or caribou; however, state and local regulations have significantly reduced the numberof wild animals killed by dogs. For instance, AS 03.55.030 allows any person to kill a free-rangingdog that habitually annoys domestic or wild animals after giving the owner reasonable opportunityto restrain the animal. And the local jurisdictions where most dogs live usually require dogs to belicensed and leashed, which promotes responsible ownership. Not so with cats. State law does notallow a person to shoot a cat harassing wildlife and most local jurisdictions do not require licenses,much less leashes for cats.Cats are not native to North America. However, the number of pet cats has tripled during the last40 years, and pet cats are now more numerous than dogs, with an estimated 94 million pet and 70100 million unowned cats in the U.S. Cats are now the most abundant terrestrial carnivore in NorthAmerica.Free-ranging cats, including many pets but also feral, abandoned, and stray cats, kill an estimated1.3 to 4 billion wild birds and 6.3 to 22.3 billion mammals annually in the contiguous UnitedStates.1 Using the same predation rates as the national study, an estimated 30,000 free-ranging and74,600 pet cats are estimated to kill 1,148,000 birds and 5,975,000 mammals annually in theMunicipality of Anchorage alone.2 These estimates are driven primarily by the high numbers ofcats. The average pet cat probably kills less than a bird a month, but it adds up.Statewide Regulations Proposals

Cats kill far more wild animals than they do house mice, rats or other deleterious exotic species.Cats are now the single greatest cause of wild bird mortalities. They kill more birds than windows,communication towers, vehicles, and pesticides combined.1 Many of their prey are not normallyconsidered game animals. However, cats compete with coyotes, foxes, lynx, ermine and other midsized furbearers and fur animals by removing voles, shrews, squirrels and even snowshoe haresfrom the food chain. Cats hunt and kill even when well fed.If your dog is harassing wildlife and you know about it but don’t do anything, Alaska law allowsyour neighbor to shoot the dog. If your young son is shooting protected birds or game birds out ofseason with his BB gun, you are responsible and may be fined. If you use your dog to find orretrieve game birds, you need a hunting license. Alaskan falconers, who possess birds of prey tohunt game animals, are required to purchase a hunting license even if the bird isn’t flown that year.But if your cat is killing dozens of birds and small mammals every year, you don’t need a huntinglicense and you’ll never suffer the indignity of a game violation for your cat’s wanton waste.That’s wrong and it should be rectified. People who own pet cats or feed stray or feral cats shouldbe held responsible for taking protected species or “hunting” in closed areas or out of season. Inother words, they should be required to purchase a hunting license annually if they know or canbe reasonably expected to know that their cat is hunting wildlife, and to take reasonable precautionsto prevent the cat from hunting protected species, in closed areas, or out of season.Everyone knows free-roaming cats kill wild birds and mammals and, in a perverse sense, that catpredation is “hunting related.” Reasonable precautions should include keeping cats indoors orotherwise under control, affixing a predation-control device to the cat’s collar, or not owning a catin the first place. Certainly, abandoning a cat or allowing a cat to roam outside presupposes thatthe cat will prey on wild birds and mammals.1Loss, S.R., T. Will, and P.P. Marra. 2013. The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlifein the United States. Nature Communications 4., R. 2019. Animal control in Anchorage, Alaska: cats and dogs deserve equal treatment.Prepared for the Anchorage Animal Control Advisory Board and Anchorage Watershed ort-1220-2019%20rev.pdfPROPOSED BY: Rick tewide Regulations Proposals

PROPOSAL 1675 AAC 92.230. Feeding of game.Add cats and dogs (and wild birds from April 1 to September 30) to the list of species that maynot be intentionally or negligently fed outdoors without a permit, as follows:5 AAC 92.230. Feeding of game(a) Except as provided in (b) of this section or under the terms of a permit issued by the department,a person may not(1) negligently feed a moose, deer, elk, sheep, bear, wolf, coyote, fox, wolverine, dog, cat, [OR]deleterious exotic wildlife, or wild birds from April 1 to September 30), or negligently leavehuman food, animal food, mineral supplements, or garbage in a manner that attracts these animals;(2) intentionally feed a moose, deer, elk, sheep, bear, wolf, coyote, fox, wolverine, dog, cat, [OR]deleterious exotic wildlife, or wild birds from April 1 to September 30), or intentionally leavehuman food, animal food, mineral supplements, or garbage in a manner that attracts these animals.(b) The prohibitions described in (a) of this section do not apply to the use of bait for trappingfurbearers or deleterious exotic wildlife, or hunting bears under 5 AAC 92.044, or hunting wolf,fox, or wolverine with bait as described in 5 AAC 92.210, and elsewhere under 5 AAC 84 - 5 AAC92.(c) It is an affirmative defense to a prosecution for illegal feeding under this section that thefood placed outside to feed dogs or cats or to attract birds is in a feeder that is designed,reinforced, enclosed, mounted or suspended in such a fashion that prevents a wild ordeleterious exotic animal listed in (a) from consuming the food, or any animal from spillingthe food so that it can be consumed by a wild or deleterious exotic animal listed in (a).What is the issue you would like the board to address and why? In the 1970s the State ofAlaska prohibited feeding bears to minimize habituation to humans and attracting them to humanhabitation. Habituation combined with a desire for anthropogenic foods can result in wildlifethreatening public safety or damaging property. In the past four decades a variety of other specieshave been added to the list, and the prohibition on the feeding of game has been refined and mademore enforceable.Feeding domestic animals outdoors is prohibited if it attracts bears and other animals on the list.Presumably, feeding cats, dogs and wild birds outdoors is also prohibited when it attracts bearsand other species on the list. And yet many people do so. The problem is that a bear, coyote, foxor other species on the list must be attracted by the food in order to trigger the violation. Once thathappens, of course, the cat is already out of the bag. Many pet owners and bird feeders are unawarethat a bear, rat, house mouse, pigeon or other animal on the list is consuming the food, at leastinitially. The problem is magnified many fold by the sheer number of households in a place likeAnchorage, the Mat-Su Valley, Fairbanks, Juneau, or Kenai.Species have been included on the list because feeding them outdoors leads to property damageand threats to public safety. If cats and dogs were not fed outdoors, that would significantly limitthe amount of food left outside for other species to eat.Statewide Regulations Proposals

This is not mere speculation. Food left outdoors for pets or unowned domestic animals like feralcats often attracts wild and deleterious exotic animals, thereby negligently violating the law. Some“feeding stations” for feral cats in rural settings and city parks attract far more wildlife than catsand “feeding stations” in urban and suburban areas also attract rats, house mice, pigeons andstarlings. 1,2,3Similarly, bird feeders attract bears during the months they are out of their dens. Birdseed, suet,peanuts, sugar water, and other foods placed outside for wild birds are just as likely to attract bearsas pet food left outdoors. This doesn’t seem like much of a problem until you realize that thousandsof Alaskans feed birds during the summer months when bears are active. The birds don’t needanthropogenic foods during the summer, and relatively few birds are attracted to feeders. Often, abird feeder filled in spring retains the same seeds all summer long.Adding cats, dogs and wild birds to the list of species that cannot be fed outdoors without takingprecautions will promote safer pet feeding practices, attract and habituate far fewer bears and otherlisted species, and greatly simply enforcement of this regulation.1Hawkins, C.C., W.E. Grant, and M.T. Longnecker. 2004. Effect of house cats, being fed in parks,on California birds and rodents. Pp. 164-170 in Proceedings 4th International Urban WildlifeSymposium. 7042l.pdf2Theimer, T.C., A.C. Clayton, A. Martinez, D.L. Peterson, and D.L. Bergman. 2015. Visitationrate and behavior of urban mesocarnivores differs in the presence of two common anthropogenicfood sources. Urban Ecosystems 18:895-906. 5-0436-x3Leikam, B., and G. Kerekes. [2018]. Feeding the feral: a study on feral cat’s environmentalimpact. Urban Wildlife Research Project blog. /PROPOSED BY: Rick POSAL 1685 AAC 92.XXX. New regulation.Adopt a new regulation that specifies the Board of Game will not require guides for nonresidentshunting moose, caribou or black bear as follows:Prohibit the creation of any new must-be-guided moose, caribou, or black bear hunts fornonresident U.S. citizens.What is the issue you would like the board to address and why? Creation of new “must-beguided” hunts for nonresidents.The Alaska Legislature in statute (AS 16.05.407) requires all nonresident (U.S. citizen) hunters tobe accompanied by a licensed guide when hunting Dall sheep, brown bear, or mountain goat, andStatewide Regulations Proposals

requires all nonresident aliens (AS 16.05.408) to be accompanied by a licensed guide when huntingany big game animal.Resident Hunters of Alaska (RHAK) continues to believe that the Board of Game does not havethe authority outside the legislature to create new must-be-guided species for nonresident U.S.citizens. However, the Department of Law attorney attached to the board believes otherwise.Aside from taking this issue before the legislature, we would like the board to prohibit the creationof any new must-be-guided hunts for nonresident U.S. citizens for species not within AS16.05.407.Whenever the board creates these new must-be-guided hunts for moose, for example, in theinterior, it causes residents to lose opportunity. These must-be-guided moose hunts for nonresidentU.S. citizens are in fact a separate subsidy and allocation to individual guides and the legislaturenever intended to require nonresident U.S. citizens to be accompanied by a guide when huntingmoose, or caribou or black bear.PROPOSED BY: Resident Hunters of OSAL 1695 AAC 92.XXX. New regulation.Prohibit the harvest of white animals as follows:No white animals should be harvested for any reason as it violates Native American religion.What is the issue you would like the board to address and why? No white animals should beharvested as it violates Native American religions. A white bison was born in our state along withwhite moose, ravens, and a killer whale in the last few years which is prophecy according to NativeAmerican religions which indicates the times we live in and spiritual responsibility. Killing themfor any reason violates this spiritual belief that there could be negative natural effects to earth andmankind for doing so. We now have many “lower 48” natives who hold this spiritual belief thatare now residents of Alaska. If this proposal is not enacted profiteers could make multiplethousands of dollars for the hide while insulting and committing spiritual blasphemy to NativeAmerican religions. It could have a worse effect than we know.PROPOSED BY: Ed ewide Regulations Proposals

PROPOSAL 1705 AAC 92.450. Description of game management units.Modify the Unit 1C and Unit 4 boundaries as follows:Unit 1C: that portion draining into Stephens Passage and Lynn Canal north of Cape Fanshaw andsouth of the latitude of Eldred Rock, including Berner’s Bay, Sullivan Island, Pleasant Island,Porpoise Islands, and all mainland portions north of Chichagof Island and south of the latitude ofEldred Rock, and excluding drainages into Farragut Bay.Unit 4: All islands south and west of Unit 1C and north of Unit 3, including Admiralty, Baranof,Chichagof, Yakobi, and Inian [, AND PLEASANT] Islands and all seaward waters and landswithin three (3) miles of the coastlines.What is the issue you would like the board to address and why? Shift the boundary betweenUnit 1C and 4 to include Pleasant and Porpoise Islands in Unit 1CPleasant and Porpoise Islands are much more closely related ecologically and geographically withthe Gustavus Forelands (Unit 1C) than with Chichagof Island (Unit 4) to the south. Pleasant Islandis a small island approximately one mile south of Gustavus. Porpoise Islands are a very smallseries of islands east of Pleasant Island. For management purposes, current big game regulationsfor the remainder of Unit 1C are more appropriate for Pleasant and Porpoise Islands than Unit 4regulations.Pleasant Island is an important source of deer for the community of Gustavus. From RY2014 toRY2018 hunters harvested five deer total (range 0-4) on Pleasant Island. During the previous fiveyear period (RY2009 – RY2013), 152 deer (range 8-56) were harvested. Winters have been mildwhich can result in greater dispersal of deer across the landscape contributing to variability inharvest. Wildlife can move freely between Pleasant Island and the Gustavus Forelands. Thedistance between Pleasant Island and the mainland is approximately 0.65 mile ( 1 km).Deer hunting regulations for Unit 4 allow residents and nonresidents to harvest six deer annuallybetween August 1 and December 31. Antlerless harvest is allowed after September 15. Federallyqualified hunters can hunt through January and may harvest additional deer for any other federallyqualified hunter under the federal designated hunter program. Gustavus residents are federallyqualified. Harvest under these regulations are currently unsustainable for this island.Deer hunting regulations for the Remainder of 1C are two bucks for residents and nonresidentsfrom August 1 to December 31 under state regulations and four deer for federally qualified ruralresidents. Under federal regulations, does are allowed between September 15 and December 31.These regulations are likely unsustainable for Pleasant Island as well, but are currently moresuitable than Unit 4 regulations.Black bears are occasionally observed on Pleasant Island. There is currently no hunting season forblack bears in Unit 4. If Pleasant Island was moved to Unit 1C, there would be a black bear seasonfrom September 1 to June 30 for both residents and nonresidents.Statewide Regulations Proposals

Wolf seasons and bag limits for wolves are currently identical for Unit 1C and Unit 4 under bothhunting and trapping regulations.Porpoise Islands are a group of very small islands east of Pleasant Island and while not muchwildlife occur on these, it is appropriate to include these in Unit 1C.Adoption of this proposal will require assessment of current customary and traditional findingsand amounts necessary for all species for subsistence determinations for both Unit 4 and Unit 1C.PROPOSED BY: Alaska Department of Fish and AL 1715 AAC 92.450. Description of game management units.Divide Unit 19A into two subunits as follows:The description of the eastern boundary of Unit 19A will be the same description for the TM680moose hunt in the ADF&G Hunting Regulations book.That is – “The Kuskokwim River drainage downstream from, and including the George Riverdrainage, and downstream from and excluding the Downey Creek drainage.”The description of the western, (same), border of Unit 19E will be - “The Kuskokwim Riverdrainage upstream from, and excluding the George River drainage, and upstream from, andincluding the Downey Creek drainage.”Note: The Stony Holitna Advisory Committee submitted maps with this proposal which gameboard.proposalbook or by contacting the ADF&GBoards Support Section at (907) 465-4046.What is the issue you would like the board to address and why?The division of Game Management Unit 19A into two subunits - 19A West to remain 19Aand 19A East to become 19E.Background Information:The Tier II hunt in 19A West and the Closure in 19A East, came about in 2006, primarily becauseresidents in the two areas had/ have fundamentally different views on moose management.There are two Advisory Committees in 19A – Acting in the interests of western 19A - The Central Kuskokwim Advisory Committee(CKAC), representing five villages – Lower Kalskag, Upper Kalskag, Aniak, Chuathbaluk,and Crooked Creek. Acting in the interests of eastern 19A - The Stony Holitna Advisory Committee (SHAC),representing four villages – Red Devil, Sleetmute, Stony River, and Lime Village.Statewide Regulations Proposals

The existence of two separate Game Management Units will simplify and facilitate wildlifemanagement by ADF&G in each of the new subunits, particularly in regard to moose.There are several differences between the two areas that offer compelling reasons for the divisionof 19A.This following info is excepting the Lime Village Management Area, LVMA. Although all of 19A is designated as an Intensive Management Area, and qualifies for aerialwolf predator control, this program has been operational only in 19A East since 2009. 19A has two identified moose stocks, with two separate harvestable surpluses, which aremanaged separately by ADF&G. 19A East and West have different use patterns from each other. There are two separate hunts in 19A- RM682 in 19A East & TM680 in 19A West. SHAC and CKAC want these hunts to continue to remain separate. The topography of those portions of 19A that is accessible by boat is mainly heavilytimbered, upland in the west, and mainly lowlands with both tundra and timber in the east. Land ownership is mainly federal and native corporation land in the west, and state andNative corporation land in the east, which has negatively affected the success of predatorcontrol programs, due to its prevention on both federal and Native corporation land. In 2019,the local Native corporation board voted to allow predator control on its lands. This willcontribute to the success of the two predator control programs in both 19A East and 19AWest. As of the March, 2020 Board of Game meeting, 19A West now has a separate predatorcontrol programPROPOSED BY: Stony Holitna Fish and Game Advisory he Board of Game deferred this proposal from the Interior and Eastern Arctic Region meetingin March 2020. The original proposal was Proposal 64.PROPOSAL 1725 AAC 92.530. Management areas.Clarify the legal use of highway vehicles, snow machines and off-road vehicles in the DaltonHighway Corridor Management Area (DHCMA) for hunting and trapping. Clarify the use offirearms, and transport of furbearers and trapping bait when trapping in the DHCMA: Do hunting restrictions in 5 AAC 92.530(7) allow travelers who exit the DHCMA (e.g. totravel by licensed highway vehicle or other motorized means to Nuiqsut, Anaktuvuk Pass,Bettles, Wiseman, Coldfoot airport, or by snow machine to a homestead outside thecorridor) to hunt once they exit the DHCMA? Does the definition of “off-road vehicle,” in AS 19.40.210 affect use of a “licensedhighway vehicle” and “snow machine” in 5 AAC 92.530(7)?o When it is operated off the highway, is a “licensed highway vehicle” in 5 AAC92.530(7) an “off-road vehicle,” as defined by 19.40.210?o Is the prohibition in 5 AAC 92.530(7) on use of motorized vehicles, with exceptionsStatewide Regulations Proposals

for use of licensed highway vehicles, snow machines, aircraft and boats consistentwith restrictions placed on off-road vehicles and snow machines in AS 19.40.210? Does the prohibition on hunting in 5 AAC 92.530(7)(B) also prohibit trapping?o If 5 AAC 92.530(7)(B) allows use of firearms for trapping in 5 AAC 92.530(7), is thisconsistent with the prohibition of hunting with firearms in AS 16.05.789? May a trapper or hunter crossing the DHCMA with a snow machine, stop to hunt or trapwithin the DHCMA, or become “parallel to the right-of-way of the highway” withoutviolation of AS 19.40.210? May a trapper or hunter use a snow machine to enter the DHCMA from outside the areaand trap or hunt within the DHCMA if the trapper does not travel all the way across theDHCMA?What is the issue you would like the board to address and why? This is a placeholder proposal,intended to solicit public and agency input regarding the interpretation of state statutes andregulations pertaining to the Dalton Highway Corridor Management Area (DHCMA).Clarification is needed, as there is confusion within state government and the public regardingwhich activities and methods of access are legal within the DHCMA and what changes to 5 AAC92.530(7) the Board of Game could legally undertake.Although the above list is not a comprehensive list of issues associated with the DHCMA, thedepartment recommends clarification of these issues in order to give the public the ability tocorrectly follow the restrictions set out in 5 AAC 92.530(7) and statutes AS 19.40.210 and AS16.05.789, or to recommend changes to 5 AAC 92.530(7).Federal access permits are also a consideration on federal lands within the DHCMA. For example,on federal lands in the DHCMA, federally-qualified users may use a snowmachine to trap, butcannot use a snowmachine to transport furbearers they catch or parts of game used as bait becauseof current language in 5 AAC 92.530(7). Additionally, nonfederally qualified users may obtain apermit to cross federal lands in the DHCMA by snowmachine in order to access property outsidethe DHCMA, but they may not use a snowmachine to trap in the DHCMA or transport game acrossthe DCHMA. Federally-qualified trappers and nonfederally-qualified trappers who obtain such apermit can use snowmachines on federal land, but not state lands such as frozen rivers, and cannottransport game.To aid the board in their decisions regarding 5 AAC 92.530(7) and possible conflicts this regulationmay have with Alaska Statutes, we provide the relevant statutes below. Regulation 5 AAC92.530(7) prior to the March 2019 Board of Game meeting is also included. The most recent boardchanges to 5 AAC 92.530(7) will be provided when they are available to the department.Regulation 5 AAC 92.530. Management areas. The following management areas are subject tospecial restrictions:.(7) the Dalton Highway Corridor Management Area:(A) the area consists of those portions of Units 20 and 24–26 extending five milesfromStatewide Regulations Proposals

each side of the Dalton Highway, including the drivable surface of the Dalton Highway,from the Yukon River to the Arctic Ocean, and including the Prudhoe Bay Closed Area;(B) the area within the Prudhoe Bay Closed Area is closed to the taking of big game;the remainder of the Dalton Highway Corridor Management Area is closed to hunting;however, big game, small game, and fur animals may be taken in the area by bow andarrow only, and small game may be taken by falconry;(C) no motorized vehicle may be used to transport hunters, hunting gear, or parts ofgame, within the Dalton Highway Corridor Management Area, except that(i) licensed highway vehicles may be used on the following designated roads:(1) Dalton Highway, (2) Bettles Winter Trail during periods when the Bureau ofLand Management and the City of Bettles announce that the trail is open for wintertravel, (3) Galbraith Lake Road from the Dalton Highway to the BLM campgroundat Galbraith Lake, including the gravel pit access road when the gate is open, (4)Toolik Lake Road, excluding the driveway to the Toolik Lake Research Facility, (5)the Sagavanirktok River access road two miles north of Pump Station 2, and (6) anyconstructed roadway or gravel pit within one- quarter mile of the Dalton Highway;(ii) aircraft and boats may be used;(iii) a snowmachine may be used to cross the management area from land outsidethe management area to access land on the other side of the management area;(D) any hunter traveling on the Dalton Highway must stop at any check station operatedby the department within the Dalton Highway Corridor Management Area.Alaska Statute Sec. 16.05.789. Prohibition on hunting adjacent to highway between YukonRiver and Arctic Ocean.(a) Hunting with firearms is prohibited north of the Yukon River in the area within five miles oneither side of the highway between the Yukon River and the Arctic Ocean.(b) A person who violates this section is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.Alaska Statute Sec. 19.40.210. Prohibition of off-road vehicles.(a) Off-road vehicles are prohibited on land within the highway corridor. However, thisprohibition does not apply to(1) off-road vehicles necessary for oil and gas exploration, development, production, ortransportation;(2) a person who holds a mining claim in the vicinity of the highway and who must use land inthe highway corridor to gain access to the mining claim;(3) the use of a snow machine to travel across the highway corridor from land outside theStatewide Regulations Proposals

corridor to access land outside the other side of the corridor; this paragraph does not permit theuse of a snow machine for any purpose within the corridor if the use begins or ends within thecorridor or within the right-of-way of the highway or if the use is for travel within the corridorthat is parallel to the right-of-way of the highway; or(4) a person who must use land in the highway corridor to gain access to private property that(A) is located outside the corridor; and(B) has an established history of use as a homestead.(b) Nothing in this section authorizes a person to access the land of another person unlawfully.(c) In this section, “highway corridor” or “corridor” means land within five miles of the right-ofway of the highway.PROPOSED BY: Alaska Department of Fishand ********************************************The Board of Game deferred this proposal from the Interior and Eastern Arctic Region meetingin March 2020. The original proposal was Proposal 63.PROPOSAL 1735 AAC 92.530(7). Management areas.Repeal the Dalton Highway Corridor Management Area as follows:Repeal 5 AAC 92.530(7) in total. Present language does not mirror all of the restrictions in AlaskaStatute 19.40.210 causing confusion among hunters and enforcement. Present language incodified:(7) the Dalton Highway Corridor Management Area:(A) the area consists of those portions of Units 20 and 24-26 extending five miles from eachside of the Dalton Highway, including the drivable surface of the Dalton Highway, fromthe Yukon River to the Arctic Ocean, and including the Prudhoe Bay Closed Area.(B) the area within the Prudhoe Bay Closed Area is closed hunting; however, big game, smallgame, and fur animals may be taken in the area by bow and arrow only, and small gamemay be taken by falconry;(C) no motorized vehicle may be used to transport hunters, hunting gear, or parts of game,within the Dalton Highway Corridor Management Area, except that(i) licensed highway vehicles may be used on the following designated roads:(1) Dalton Highway,(2) Bettles Winter Trail during periods when the Bureau of Land Management andthe City of Bettles announce the trail is open for winter travel,(3) Galbraith Lake Road from the Dalton Highway to the B

otherwise under control, affixing a predation- control device to the cat’s collar, or not owning a cat in the first place. Certainly, abandoning a cat or allowing a cat to roam outside presupposes that the cat will prey on wild birds and mammals. 1 . Loss, S.R., T. Will, and P.P. Marra. 2