Page 1 of 6Lesson3MAIN IDEASCulture Some simple farming villages expandedand developed into more complex villages.Culture A cultural pattern involving early formsof government, specialized workers, and socialclasses began to develop in complex villages.Culture The way of life in a complex village wasdifferent from that in a simple farming village.TAKING NOTESReading Skill: CategorizingSorting information into groups helps you understanddifferences among the groups. In Lesson 3, look forthe following three categories of information aboutthe first communities. Record examples or details foreach category in a web diagram.surplusesFirstCommunities Brooch This prehistoric broochwas used for fastening a cloak atthe neck. It was found on the bankof the Thames River in England.religionspecial skillsSkillbuilder Handbook, page R66.1.2 Identify the locations ofhuman communities that populatedthe major regions of the world anddescribe how humans adapted to avariety of environments.64 Chapter 26.1.3 Discuss the climatic changesand human modifications of thephysical environment that gaverise to the domestication of plantsand animals and new sources ofclothing and shelter.CST 3 Students use a variety ofmaps and documents to identifyphysical and cultural featuresof neighborhoods, cities, states,and countries and to explain thehistorical migration of people,expansion and disintegrationof empires, and the growth ofeconomic systems.

Page 2 of 6TERMS & NAMESThe FirstCommunitiessurplusspecializationartisansocial classgovernmentBuild on What You Know Do you live in the country,a small town, a city, or a suburb? In the distant past, simplefarming villages developed, over hundreds of years, into morecomplex villages and eventually into cities.Villages Around the WorldESSENTIAL QUESTION How did farming villages develop?When villages prospered, they were able to support morepeople. Their populations grew. People’s skills became morespecialized. Village economies became more varied.Surpluses Boost Development As agriculturaltechniques improved, farmers sometimes producedsurpluses—more than what they needed to survive. Forexample, farmers might grow more grain than their familiesor village could use. The extra was an economic surplus.Surpluses in early farming villages were not limited to food.Surpluses also included materials for making cloth and otherproducts. Sheep raisers, for example, may have had surpluswool. Surpluses of food and other materials in good seasonshelped villages survive bad seasons.Moroccan VillageThis modern village inthe Atlas Mountainsof Morocco in NorthAfrica continues away of life that haslasted for thousandsof years. 65

Page 3 of 6People Develop Different Skills Asfarmers began producing surpluses, noteveryone had to raise food. People beganspecializing in other kinds of work. Aspecialization is a skill in one kind of work.Potters and weavers probably wereamong the first to specialize. They madeproducts that everyone could use. Pottersmade vessels for carrying and storing waterand food. Weavers created cloth from spuncotton, wool, and flax—the plant fromwhich linen is made. Potters and weaverstraded their products for food.Certain people in a community wereregarded as holy. These holy people, orshamans, interpreted natural events such asrain or fire. They explained the meaning of agood or bad harvest. They were also healers.They were thought to be in contact with thespiritual world. Such people evolved into thepriests of the first cities.The way of life in a village was new and very different.Hunter-gatherers led a nomadic life, moving from placeto place. Villagers settled in one place and no longerdepended on hunting and gathering for food. Instead,farmers worked to raise enough food for everyone in thevillage. Work became more specialized, with nonfarmerstrading their goods and services for food. Necklace andPottery People withspecial skills madedifferent objects. Thepottery jar was madeabout 1800 B.C. Thenecklace is roughlythe same age. Bothwere produced byearly civilizations inSouthwest Asia.How did surpluses affect village life?Simple Villages Grow More ComplexESSENTIAL QUESTION How did life in villages become more complex?Surpluses and specialization led to the growth of villages. Lifebecame more complex in certain villages as they developed.A Changing Way of Life Extra food and other supplies meantthat more people could live together. In this way, surplusesencouraged the growth of villages and populations. Surplusesalso led to increased trade. People in one village might tradetheir surplus food for the surplus tools in another village.66 Chapter 2

Page 4 of 6Workers became more specialized. Potters, weavers, andother craftspeople often spent years learning their skills.Vocabulary StrategyPeople trained in skills or crafts are called artisans. Carpenters, Artisan means “askilled worker ortoolmakers, cloth makers, and potters are all artisans. Peoplecraftsperson.” Itswith similar skills developed into occupational classes. Inantonym, or opposite,this way, specialization led to the development of socialis unskilled worker.classes. A social class is a group of people with similarThe movement fromunskilled to skilledcustoms, background, training, and income, such as farmers,workers represented ancraftspeople, priests, or rulers.important change.As ancient communities grew into larger villages, peoplefelt the need for laws and leadership to keep order and settledisputes. People developed early forms of government—that is,ways of creating order and providing leadership. Early humansmade laws to make their communities both safer and more stable.From Simple to Complex Villages A complex village had alarger population than a simple village, with people living closertogether. The larger population had a greater supply of skills,ideas, and needs. As a result, life in a complex village was morevaried and complicated than that in a simple village.What are some examples of specialized labor?Life in a Complex VillageCharacteristics ofComplex VillagesESSENTIAL QUESTION How did life in a complexvillage compare with that in a simple village?Complex villages were not like the citiesof today. Although one of these villagesmay have had as many as 5,000 people, itwould be quite small by today’s standards.However, thousands of years ago, a villagewith a population of 5,000 would havebeen very large.Technology was still in its early stages.Electricity, rapid transit, sewer systems,and concrete buildings support today’shuge city populations. In ancient times,these tools and technologies had not yetbeen invented. Most farming villages hadonly a few hundred inhabitants.Largerpopulationsthousands of peopleBeginnings ofgovernmentleaders; laws orother means ofsettling disputesPublicbuildingsshrines and otheraccommodations forgatherings of peopleSpecializedworkersartisans and otherskilled workersSocial classesgroups with similartrainings and incomesTradeexchange ofsurplus goodsThe Earliest Human Societies 67

Page 5 of 6ArtifactsPrimary sources include artifacts, or objects, from thepast. Artifacts include tools, weapons, sculptures,and jewelry made by human beings. These objectscan tell us much about ancient peoples and cultures. The seal at the top was found in a burial site in CatalHuyuk. (chah TAHL hoo YOOK) It was used as astamp to show ownership. None of the designs isrepeated on the many seals that have been found. The dagger at the bottom was also found in CatalHuyuk. It has a snake handle. The blade is made offlint imported from Syria. It was probably used inreligious ceremonies or rituals.DOCUMENT–BASED QUESTIONWhat conclusions can you draw aboutthe life of the people in Catal Huyuk bylooking at these artifacts?Catal Huyuk Catal Huyuk is an example of a complex village.Its ruins are at least 8,000 years old, and it had a populationof about 5,000. Archaeologists began unearthing and studyingCatal Huyuk in 1961.Catal Huyuk is located in Turkey, where agriculture developedfairly early. (See map on page 61.) The bones of many waterbirds found at Catal Huyuk suggest that the village was built in amarshy area. Farming probably took place in outlying areas.A Village Develops Although Catal Huyuk had a smallpopulation, its site has yielded evidence of the complex life ofits dwellers. The layout of the village shows that people lived inclusters of permanent buildings. Houses had similar floor plans,although the bricks used to build them varied in size.Other buildings served as shrines, where religious ceremoniestook place. Wall paintings in the shrines have religious meaning.Small amounts of charred grain and other offerings to the godsshow that these buildings were sacred sites.68 Chapter 2

Page 6 of 6The people of Catal Huyuk developedspecial skills, such as making tools. Artisansalso created luxury items, such as mirrors andmetal beads. They produced cloth, woodenvessels, and simple pottery. Artists createdmurals on the clay walls of many buildings.Specialization established Catal Huyuk as acenter of trade, culture, and influence.What characteristics of Catal Huyuk identifyit as a complex village? Wall PaintingThis painting showsa red bull surroundedby humans. It waspainted on the insidewall of a shrine in thevillage of Catal Huyuk.Lesson Summary Improved farming techniques enabled villagefarmers to grow surplus food. Simple villages sometimes grew intocomplex villages. Catal Huyuk is the site of an early complex village.Why It Matters Now . . .The development of complex villages was an important step in thechange from simple villages to cities.3LessonReviewHomework HelperClassZone.comTerms & Names1. Explain the importance ofsurplusartisanspecializationsocial classgovernmentUsing Your NotesCategorizing Use your completed web diagram toanswer the following question:2. Why were pottery and weaving among the firstskills to be developed? llsActivityMain Ideas3. Why did surpluses lead to the growthof trade? (6.1.3)4. What are the basic characteristics of acomplex village? (6.1.2)5. How does its inhabitants’ way of life indicatethat Catal Huyuk was a complex village? (CST 3)Critical Thinking6. Comparing and Contrasting What would bethe pros and cons of living as a nomad? in a simplevillage? in a complex village? (6.1.2)7. Making Inferences How did specialization helpto establish social classes? (6.1.3)Planning a Museum Display Plan a museum display showing specializations that peoplepracticed in early villages. On a poster, make a two-column chart. List the display items on the left.Opposite each item, write a brief description. (6.1.3)The Earliest Human Societies 69

Catal Huyuk Catal Huyuk is an example of a complex village. Its ruins are at least 8,000 years old, and it had a population of about 5,000. Archaeologists began unearthing and studying Catal Huyuk in 1961.