CHAPTER IVFINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONThis research investigated the classroom interaction at Seventh Grade of SMP „SMIP1946‟ Banjarmasin. In the following chapter researcher tries to describe in detail the result ofobservation conducted in Seventh Grade of SMP „SMIP 1946‟ Banjarmasin.A. FindingsResearch Question 1What are the classroom interaction at Seventh Grade of SMP ‘SMIP 1946’Banjarmasin Academic year 2014/2015?1. Findings from the observation (FIAC)The data collection of this research recorded four meetings of classroominteraction. Each meeting was observed in 30 minutes length. The observationsare focused on the classroom interaction within three types : teacher talk, pupilstalk and silence.The observation were arranged by Flanders‟ Interaction AnalysisCategories (FIAC). While observation was arranged to obtained the data in orderto match the objective of the research. According to FIAC that created byFlanders, there are several categories of classroom interaction. These includeteacher talks, pupils talks and silence. The categories that include on teacher talksare : (1) accepts feeling, (2) praises and (or) encourages, (3) accepts or uses ideasof pupils, (4) ask questions, (5) Lecturing, (6) giving direction, (7) Criticizing orjustifying authority. Pupil talks include : (8) pupil talk response and (9) pupil talkinitiation. The last category is silence, includes silence or confusion which is the10 category of FIAC.40
41In the following, the writer presents the result of the observation bywhich implemented Flanders‟ Interaction Analysis Category (FIAC). The resultwill be explained by the writer per category.1. Teacher TalksTeacher talks refer to talks or expressions that teacher used duringthe classroom interaction. These include : (1) accepts feeling, (2)praises and (or) encourages, (3) accepts or uses ideas of pupils, (4)ask questions, (5) Lecturing, (6) giving direction, (7) Criticizing orjustifying authority.1) Accepts FeelingOne of Flanders categories is Accepts feeling. This refers ndunderstanding of past, present, or future feelings of pupils in nonthreatening way. Here, teacher accepts and clarifies an attitude orfeeling of the pupil in a non-threatening- manner. Feelings can bepositive or negative. These are the examples from the result ofobservation.T : “Assalamu’alaikum Warahmatullah Wabarakatuh.”P : “Wa’alaikumussalam Warahmatullah Wabarakatuh”T : “Good morning.”P : “Good morning Maam.”T : “How are you today?”P : “I‟m fine, thank you, and you?”T : “I‟m fine too, thank you.(source : the result of the observation in the appendix)
42These expression is the interaction in the classroom thatparticularly used by the teacher in „accepts feeling‟ category, isessential to strengthen relationship between a teacher and pupilsand also to break the ice because the pupils feel nervous,especially at the first time they meet their teacher when teachinglearning process. In addition, the teacher seemed to be aware thatshe needs to make the pupils familiar with English expression.2) Praises and (or) encouragesPraises and encourages as adapted from Brophy are delivered tofoster intrinsic motivation, one of the element of interactivelanguage teaching. Praises can be considered as e xpression ofyour approval or admiration for somebody/something.The writer found in the dialogue is in the following:T : “July is after .?P : “Jun, June.”T : “Ok. Good. (silent)November is after ?P : “October”T : “ Yaa, Okay good pupils”Praises and (or) encourages pupils‟ action or behavior. “Okay,good pupils” that is the example of praise.Another example of the interaction :T : “ if we get something from other, what should we say?”S : “ thank you!”T : “ Okay, Great!”
43The example above is one of the expression or talks that relatedto encourage. The teacher make a review of the last meetingwhen she said that “ if we get something from other, what shouldwe say?”. To encourage the pupils to remember the lesson of thelast meeting. Then she said “Okay, Great !” it is also asencouragement to the pupils to find another expressions ofdelivering opinion.3) Accepts or uses ideas of pupilsAccepting or using ideas of pupils includes clarifying,interpreting and summarizing their ideas. Teacher may repeat thequestion or response from pupils using his own style or wordsTeacher uses pupils‟ ideas as encouragement and stimulatingmore interaction. Beside that, pupils will feel more respected andhopefully they won‟t have doubt anymore to offer their answer oropinion.Here is the example the writer found from observation.T : “ Before April is.?”S : “ March, April”.S : “ After itu sesudah lah Bu?”T : “ Ya, After itu sesudah, kalo before?”S : “ Sebelum”The teacher used student‟s ideas by repeated pupils question andgave additional question to stimulate more talks.
444) Ask questionsAsking question is one the category of teacher talks that is mostlyuseful to foster interactive language classroom. In askingquestions, the teacher frequently asked the pupils about theirunderstanding related to the the material given. Here are thefinding on the observation :T: “I will check your attendance list. Ibu mau absen kalian. whocalled the name say present. Yang ibu panggil namanya bilang„present‟ ya? Understand all of you?”P: “Yes Maam”.Asking question to pupils using those expressions are lessappropriate since they only need simple responses and polaranswers, just by saying yes or no. However, if the teacher wantedto check pupils‟ understanding, it is more appropriate to giveknowledge questions, for instance “What did you get from myexplanation?”. This question strategy will create the interactivelearning as suggested by Brown (2001: 169).5) LecturingLecturing is one of the category of teacher talks which includesthe interaction of giving facts or opinions about content orprocedures; expressing own ideas, giving own explanation, orciting an authority other than pupil.
45For example, on the result of observation :T : “ya ini perhatikan, expression of asking permission. Askingartinya apa?P : “meminta Maam”T : “ yaa meminta, kalau permission nya pang apa?P : “silent, izin Maam”T : “ iya, benar. Jadi asking permission itu artinya meminta izin.Okay yang pertama contoh expression nya : can I help you,miss?” .The transcription above reveals that in lecturing, the teacher usedBahasa Indonesia in order to make pupils more understand aboutmaterials delivered and to avoid misunderstanding.6) Giving directionGiving directions, commands or orders, or initiation with whichpupil is expected to comply with. As the example :T : “ oke di catat lah, ibu menuliskan dulu.kena kalian baca.P : “Yes”T : “ (teacher asked pupils to read the material she wrote in thewhite board )P : “(enthusiast to come forward and read the material)”This transcription shows that teacher gives command to pupils towrite down the material (dialogue) then asked pupils to read itafter they finished writing.
46This category of “gives direction” is commonly applied when theteacher acts as a director which directs the pupils in doing anactivity in the classroom.7) Criticizing or justifying authorityTranscription from forth observation:T : “Ferdi tolong perhatikan, ini ibu lagi menjelaskan. Please,pay attention. Awas ja kada paham, kena ibu tanyai”This transcription reveals that the teacher tried to ask a student tobe quiet by saying “Please, pay attention.” It was related to thepupils‟ behavior in the classroom.2. Pupil Talks1) Pupil talk responseTalk by pupils in response to teacher‟s talk. Teacher initiates thecontact, or soicits pupil statement, or structures the situation.Teacher asks question student gives answer to the question.Such the example :T : “how do you do pupils?”P : “how do you”T : “Good Morning?”P : “Good morning Maam”This transcription indicates that the student understood theteacher‟s language, this response is categorized as the simple andlimited respond.
472) Pupil talk initiationTalk by pupils which they initiate. Expressing own ideas;initiating a new topic; freedom to develop opinions and a line ofthought, like asking thoughtful questions; going beyond theexisting structure.Example :T : “ Bingo, misal no.1 coret, 3 menurun atau mendatar. Siapayang dapat tulisan BINGO pertama kali dia yang menang.Understand ?”P : “oh kaya Sudoku kah Bu mainnya?” (9)T : “ (silent). Finished?”P : “Belum bu”The transcription above indicates that pupils‟ is expressing theirown ideas by saying “oh kaya Sudoku kah Bu mainnya?”The “student initiated” category emerged when pupils had theirown ideas.3. Silence1) Silence or confusionSilence means pauses in interaction during which there is noverbal interaction. This also include silence in which a piece ofaudio and visual equipment. For exampleT : “Okay pupils, today I will give you some exercise, Ibu kasihsoal sebagai review pelajaran yang lalu? (the teacher wrote
48the material on the whiteboard for 15 minutes and no verbalinteraction) Finish?”P : “Not yet. Belum bu. ” (silent, pupils write down the materialon their task book)The “silence” category happened when the teacher wrote thematerial. During that time, there was verbal and non verbalinteraction. Like “Not yet, belum bu” and after that student just(silent) to finished their what the teacher asked them.Another silent is confusion. It means that there is pausing activityfor several times when the teacher asked pupils to do somethingor giving them exercises or asked pupils to play a game. Forexample :T : “make lines. 5 baris ke bawah, 10 ke sampingS : (cannot be recoded, pupils confusion, they make noise)The transcription above shows that pupils at the same timetalking and discussing the topic given by the teacher, so theinteraction could not be recorded. However, the interactionduring game activity refers to the interaction among classmembers. During the activity, the pupils tended to use theirnative languages, either in Indonesia or Banjarese language.
49Research Question 2Which is the more dominant between teacher talk and pupils talk during theclass?1. Findings based on the interpretation of interaction matrixFrom the data collection, this research recorded four meetings of classroominteractions. Conducting Flanders Interaction Analysis resulted in a matrix ofclassroom interaction. The matrix is presented in tables below.Table 2.1 characteristics of Classroom Interaction of Seventh Grade A of SMP„SMIP 1946‟ Banjarmasin by Flanders Interaction AnalysisCategories (IC 1-10) – ( 1st 221110I51824I5I1745Total22363213102321145N176a. TT 88 x 100 50 %176b. PT 43 x 100 24,43 %176
50Table 2.2 characteristics of Classroom Interaction of Seventh Grade A of SMP„SMIP 1946‟ Banjarmasin by Flanders Interaction Analysis Categories(IC 1-10) – ( 2nd 178328911061226439Totala. TT 9631171b. PT 461712511x 100 56,14 %x 100 26, 90 9N171
51Table 2.3 characteristics of Classroom Interaction of Seventh Grade A of SMP„SMIP 1946‟ Banjarmasin by Flanders Interaction Analysis Categories(IC 1-10) – ( 3rd 225910Total1240a. TT 42 x 100 42,42 %99b. PT 25 x 100 25,25 632N 996
52Table 2.4 characteristics of Classroom Interaction of Seventh Grade A of SMP„SMIP 1946‟ Banjarmasin by Flanders Interaction Analysis Categories(IC 1-10) – ( 4th 5717461757N221a. TT 143 x 100 64,7 %221b. PT 63 x 100 28, 5 %221From the data in the matrix tables above, we can see that, from four meetingobservation the percentage of teacher talks is more dominant than student talks. It canbe conclude that the teacher took most part interaction in the classroom when teaching.
53B. DiscussionIn this session, the result of the research is discussed related to the theoriescollected in Chapter Two. By the discussion. It can be seen how the theories meetthe reality; whether they can fit the reality easily or conversely it.Based on the result of the observation, it can be seen that the ten categories ofinteraction analysis such (1) accepts feeling; (2) praises and „or‟ encourages; (3)accepts or uses ideas of pupils; (4) ask questions; (5) lecturing; (6) giving direction;(7) criticizing or justifying authority; (8) pupils‟ responses; (9) pupils‟ initiationand (10) silence were applied in the classroom during teaching- learning process.The result also show that in the classroom whe n teaching and learningprocess, unfortunately the teacher still used Bahasa and Native language to explainthe material to pupils when it should be used English more. Because if the teacherused more English during the class, more or less it also could motivate the pupils touse English as the target language during the classroom activities or even outsidethe classroom.The teacher was taking most part in the classroom such given lecturing, givendirection, criticizing or justifying authority. The teacher also active in askingquestions to the pupils, this questioning strategy is to initiate the interaction in theclassroom. This will make the pupils think and use their idea that they had beendiscussed before. According to Brown (2001:169), “One of the best ways todevelop your role as an initiator and sustainer of interaction is to develop arepertoire of questioning strategies”. So, by giving response to the teacherquestions, at least the pupils could speak English although it just a little but,
54because of that pupils were active enough as participants in classroom interaction. Itcan be seen in the matrix table.This finding shows the teacher‟s role that is cited by Brown (2001:166-168).Brown stated that there are five roles of interactive teacher. They are as controller,director, manager, facilitator, and resource. When the teacher asks questions, itmeans the teacher facilitates the pupils to involve in the classroom activity. Besides,the teacher often gave direction, commands, and order to the pupils to which thepupils were expected to follow the teachers‟ instruction. When the teachers gavedirection, it helped to make the teaching- learning process running smoothly.Moreover, the teachers also did their role as a resource o lecturer by giving themsome material and information. It means that the teachers were available for adviceand some information when the pupils need it. From the results of the fourobservations, the teachers also used some of her talk times to praise or encouragethe pupils and accept or use pupils‟ idea. Thus, the pupils were motivated and usedtheir ideas confidently. It is appropriate with one of eight roles of teachers stated byHarmer (1979) that the teacher‟s role as assessor, which means the teacher mustalways be sensitive to the pupils‟ possible reaction. This is where the teacher acts asassessor, offering feedback, correction, and grading pupils in various ways.Furthermore from the interpretation of matrix tables shown that the teacherwas talking more than the pupils, it can be seen in the proportion of teacher talks,they are 50 % in first meeting , 56,14 % in second meeting , 42,42 % in thirdmeeting and 64,7 % at the fourth meeting, but the proportion of pupils‟ talk at thefirst meeting was 24,43 % then in the fourth meeting it was improved become 28,5 %. This result shows that the pupils are quite actively involved in the teaching-
55learning activities. It meant that the pupils were active enough in the classroominteraction. The pupils were active in responding teacher‟s questions in both ofpredictable and unpredictable response. Even though in the second and thirdmeeting there was just less interaction happened during the class than in the firstand the fourth meeting.Moreover, the result showed that the interaction in the classroom is in threeway communication; they are interaction betweenteacher-pupils interaction,pupils-teacher interaction and pupils-pupils interaction as. Teacher – pupilsinteraction can be seen from the teachers‟ activities such as accepts feelings,praising and encouraging, accepting or using the ideas of pupils, asking question,giving direction and criticizing pupils. Student- teacher interaction is reflected inpupils‟ response and pupils‟ initiated, while student-pupils interaction appears inpupils‟ discussion or group work during teaching and learning process.Therefore, it can be concluded that the classroom interaction that occurredduring the teaching- learning process in the classroom at Seventh Grade of SMP„SMIP 1946‟ Banjarmasin involved the teacher and the pupils. The teachers‟ talk isdominant in interaction during the teaching- learning process, even though thepupils also active enough to talk. They expressed their ideas and feeling to theirteachers‟ lectures and questions. It is in line with the statement o f Allwright andBailey (1996:19) “Classroom interaction has to be managed by everyone takingparts, not just by the teacher because interaction is obviously not something youjust to people, but something people do together, collectively.”
P : “oh kaya Sudoku kah Bu mainnya?” (9) T : “ (silent). Finished?” P : “Belum bu” The transcription above indicates that pupils‟ is expressing their own ideas by saying “oh kaya Sudoku kah Bu mainnya?” The “student initiate