Essentials ofSociologyA Down-to-Earth ApproachThirteenth EditionJames M. HenslinSouthern Illinois University, Edwardsville330 Hudson Street, NY NY 10013A01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 112/12/17 12:58 AM

VP, Product Development: Dickson MusslewhitePortfolio Manager: Jeff MarshallEditorial Assistant: Christina WinterburnDevelopment Editor: Jennifer Auvil (OPS)Program Team Lead: Amber MackeyContent Producer: Mary DonovanDirector of Field Marketing: Jonathan CottrellField Marketer: Brittany Pogue-Mohammed AcostaOperations Manager: Mary FischerOperations Specialist: Mary Ann GloriandeDirector of Design: Blair BrownCover Art Director: Kathryn FootCover Design: LuminaDigital Studio Project Manager: Rich BarnesFull-Service Project Management and Composition: IntegraPrinter/Binder: LSC Communications, IncCover Printer: Phoenix Color/HagerstownAcknowledgments of third party content appear on pages CR-1–CR-7, which constitutes anextension of this copyright page. Cultural Diversity Around the World: Doing Business in theGlobal Village box contains art with the following credit: Demashita! Powerpuff Girls Z 2009Cartoon Network, Toei Animation & Aniplex. All Rights Reserved. THE POWERPUFF GIRLSand all related characters and elements are trademarks of and Cartoon Network.Copyright 2019, 2017, 2014, 2012 by James M. Henslin. All Rights Reserved. Printed in theUnited States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission shouldbe obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrievalsystem, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Rights & Permissions Department, please and ALWAYS LEARNING are exclusive trademarks owned by Pearson Education,Inc. or its affiliates in the United States and/or other countries.Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks that may appear in this workare the property of their respective owners and any references to third-party trademarks, logosor other trade dress are for demonstrative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are notintended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’sproducts by the owners of such marks, or any relationship between the owner and PearsonEducation, Inc. or its affiliates, authors, licensees or distributors.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataNames: Henslin, James M., author.Title: Essentials of sociology : a down-to-earth approach / James M. Henslin,Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville.Description: Thirteenth edition. Boston : Pearson, [2019]Identifiers: LCCN 2017048320 (print) LCCN 2017052388 (ebook) ISBN9780134740041 (ebook) ISBN 9780134736570 (student edition : alk. paper) ISBN 9780134740003 (a la carte : alk. paper)Subjects: LCSH: Sociology.Classification: LCC HM586 (ebook) LCC HM586 .H43 2019 (print) DDC 301—dc23LC record available at 19Rental EditionISBN 10:0-13-473658-3ISBN 13: 978-0-13-473658-7Revel ACISBN 10:0-13-473989-2ISBN 13: 978-0-13-473989-2ALCISBN 10:0-13-473999-XISBN 13: 978-0-13-474000-3Instructor’s Resource EditionISBN 10:0-13-473999-XISBN 13: 978-0-13-474000-9A01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 212/12/17 12:58 AM

To my fellow sociologists,who do such creative research on social life andwho communicate the sociological imaginationto generations of students. With my sincere admiration and appreciation.A01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 312/12/17 12:58 AM

Brief Contents1The Sociological Perspective 18Social Class in the United States 2282Culture 389Race and Ethnicity 2633Socialization 6810Gender and Age 3034Social Structure and SocialInteraction 10111Politics and the Economy 3455Social Groups and FormalOrganizations 13312Marriage and Family 38113Education and Religion 4156Deviance and Social Control 16214Population and Urbanization 4517Global Stratification 19515Social Change and the Environment 488ivA01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 412/12/17 12:58 AM

ContentsTo the Student . from the Author xviiiTo the Instructor . from the Author xixAbout the Author 1xxxviThe Sociological Perspective 1The Sociological Perspective Seeing the Broader Social Context The Global Context—and the Local 334Origins of Sociology Tradition versus Science Auguste Comte and Positivism Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism Karl Marx and Class Conflict Emile Durkheim and Social Integration 455667APPLYING DURKHEIM7Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic RELIGION AND THE ORIGIN OF CAPITALISM88Sociology in North America Sexism at the Time: Women in Early Sociology Racism at the Time: W. E. B. Du Bois Jane Addams: Sociologist and Social Reformer Talcott Parsons and C. Wright Mills: Theoryversus Reform The Continuing Tension: Basic, Applied,and Public Sociology BASIC SOCIOLOGY 12 APPLIED SOCIOLOGYPUBLIC SOCIOLOGY 12991011121212 Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Symbolic Interactionism SYMBOLS IN EVERYDAY LIFE 14 IN SUM 15 APPLYING SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM 15 IN SUM141416Functional Analysis ROBERT MERTON AND FUNCTIONALISM 16 IN SUMAPPLYING FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS 17 IN SUM 17Conflict Theory 16222323Research Methods (Designs) 24Surveys 25SELECTING A SAMPLE 25 ASKING NEUTRALQUESTIONS 26 TYPES OF QUESTIONS 27 ESTABLISHING RAPPORT 27Participant Observation (Fieldwork) 28Case Studies 29Secondary Analysis 30Analysis of Documents 30Experiments 30Unobtrusive Measures 32Gender in Sociological Research 32Ethics in Sociological Research Protecting the Subjects: The Brajuha Research Misleading the Subjects: The Humphreys Research 333334Trends Shaping the Future of Sociology Tension in Sociology: Research versusSocial Reform 34THREE STAGES IN SOCIOLOGYORIENTATIONS 353535 DIVERSITY OFGlobalization 35HOW GLOBALIZATION APPLIES TO THIS TEXTSummary and Review 36Thinking Critically about Chapter 123537Culture 38What Is Culture? Culture and Taken-for-Granted Orientationsto Life IN SUM17 404042Practicing Cultural Relativism 18KARL MARX AND CONFLICT THEORY 18 CONFLICTTHEORY TODAY 19 FEMINISTS AND CONFLICTTHEORY 19 APPLYING CONFLICT THEORY 19 IN SUM 19Putting the Theoretical Perspectives Together Levels of Analysis: Macro and Micro How Theory and Research Work Together Collecting the Data Analyzing the Results Sharing the Results ATTACK ON CULTURAL RELATIVISM4344Components of Symbolic Culture 46Gestures 46191920Doing Sociological Research 21A Research Model Selecting a Topic Defining the Problem Reviewing the Literature Formulating a Hypothesis Choosing a Research Method 212122222222MISUNDERSTANDING AND OFFENSEUNIVERSAL GESTURES? 4746 Language 47LANGUAGE ALLOWS HUMAN EXPERIENCE TO BE CUMULATIVE 48 LANGUAGE PROVIDES A SOCIALOR SHARED PAST 48 LANGUAGE PROVIDES A SOCIALOR SHARED FUTURE 48 LANGUAGE ALLOWS SHARED PERSPECTIVES 48 LANGUAGE ALLOWS SHARED,GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR 49 IN SUM 50Language and Perception: The Sapir-WhorfHypothesis 50Values, Norms, and Sanctions 51Folkways, Mores, and Taboos 52vA01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 512/12/17 12:58 AM

vi ContentsMany Cultural Worlds 53Subcultures 53Countercultures 56Values in U.S. Society An Overview of U.S. Values Value Clusters Value Contradictions An Emerging Value Cluster IN SUM565657585859When Values Clash Values as Distorting Lenses “Ideal” Culture Versus “Real” Culture Cultural Universals IN SUM6061Sociobiology and Human Behavior IN SUM606060IN SUMTechnology in the Global Village New Technology Cultural Lag and Cultural Change Technology and Cultural Leveling 62626464CULTURAL DIFFUSION 64 COMMUNICATION AND TRAVEL 65 CULTURAL LEVELING 658181Socialization into Gender Learning the Gender Map Gender Messages in the Family PARENTSPARENTS82 TOYS AND PLAY8481818282 SAME-SEXGender Messages from Peers Gender Messages in the Mass Media 8485TELEVISION, MOVIES, AND CARTOONS 85 VIDEOGAMES 85 ADVERTISING 85 IN SUM 86Agents of Socialization The Family 8687SOCIAL CLASS AND TYPE OF WORKCLASS AND PLAY 876162Summary and Review 66Thinking Critically about Chapter 2Society within Us: The Self and Emotionsas a Social Mirror 87 SOCIALThe Neighborhood 87Religion 88Day Care 88The School 89Peer Groups 90The Workplace 92Resocialization 92Total Institutions 9267Socialization through the Life Course 94Childhood (from birth to about age 12) 3Socialization 68Society Makes Us Human Feral Children Isolated Children Institutionalized Children 70717172THE ORPHANAGE EXPERIMENT IN THE UNITED STATES 72 THE ORPHANAGE EXPERIMENT IN ROMANIA 73 TIMINGAND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF GENIE 73 IN SUM 73Deprived Animals IN SUM“BRING YOUR PARENTS TO WORK DAY”959696The Middle Years (ages 30–65) THE EARLY MIDDLE YEARS (AGES 30–49)MIDDLE YEARS (AGES 50–65) 979696 THE LATER74749797 Are We Prisoners of Socialization? Summary and Review 99Thinking Critically about Chapter 39810075Mead and Role Taking IN SUMAdolescence (ages 13–17) Transitional Adulthood (ages 18–29) THE TRANSITIONAL OLDER YEARS (AGES 65–74)THE LATER OLDER YEARS (AGE 75 OR SO) 9774Socialization into the Self and Mind Cooley and the Looking-Glass Self 9495The Older Years (about age 65 on) 73IN SUM: SOCIETY MAKES US HUMANIN SUM7576Piaget and the Development of Reasoning Global Aspects of the Self and Reasoning 7677Learning Personality, Morality, and Emotions Freud and the Development of Personality 7777SOCIOLOGICAL EVALUATION78Kohlberg and the Development of Morality 78KOHLBERG’S THEORY 78 CRITICISMS OFKOHLBERG 79 RESEARCH WITH BABIES 79 THE CULTURAL RELATIVITY OF MORALITY 79Socialization into Emotions GLOBAL EMOTIONS 79 EXPRESSING EMOTIONS:“GENDER RULES” 79 THE EXTENT OF “FEELINGRULES” 80 WHAT WE FEEL 80 RESEARCHNEEDED 80A01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 6794Social Structure and SocialInteraction 101Levels of Sociological Analysis Macrosociology and Microsociology 103103The Macrosociological Perspective: Social Structure 104The Sociological Significance of Social Structure 104IN SUM105Components of Social Structure 105Culture 106Social Class 106Social Status 106STATUS SETS 106 ASCRIBED AND ACHIEVEDSTATUSES 106 STATUS SYMBOLS 107 MASTER STATUSES 107 STATUS INCONSISTENCY 10712/12/17 12:58 AM

ContentsRoles 108Groups 108Social Institutions Comparing Functionalist and Conflict Perspectives 109109THE FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE 109 THE CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE 111 IN SUM 111Changes in Social Structure What Holds Society Together? 111111MECHANICAL AND ORGANIC SOLIDARITY 111 GEMEINSCHAFT AND GESELLSCHAFT 112 HOWRELEVANT ARE THESE CONCEPTS TODAY? 112 IN SUM 113114APPLYING IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT123Ethnomethodology: Uncovering BackgroundAssumptions 124125The Social Construction of Reality Gynecological Examinations IN SUM125126127The Need for Both Macrosociology and Microsociology Summary and Review 131Thinking Critically about Chapter 45Working for the Corporation Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes in the “Hidden”Corporate Culture 127132Social Groups and FormalOrganizations 133Groups within Society Primary Groups 135135137Secondary Groups 137VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS 137 THE INNERCIRCLE 137 THE IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY 138In-Groups and Out-Groups SHAPING PERCEPTION AND MORALITY138138Reference Groups 139EVALUATING OURSELVES 139 EXPOSURE TO CONTRADICTORYSTANDARDS IN A SOCIALLY DIVERSE SOCIETY 140Social Networks THE SMALL WORLD PHENOMENON 142 IS THESMALL WORLD PHENOMENON AN ACADEMICMYTH? 142 BUILDING UNINTENTIONAL BARRIERSA01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 7148148140142149150Group Dynamics Effects of Group Size on Stability and Intimacy Effects of Group Size on Attitudes and Behavior 151151152LABORATORY FINDINGS AND THE REALWORLD 153Leadership 155WHO BECOMES A LEADER? 155 TYPES OF LEADERS 155 LEADERSHIP STYLES 155 LEADERSHIP STYLES IN CHANGING SITUATIONS156The Power of Peer Pressure: The Asch Experiment 157The Power of Authority: The Milgram Experiment 158Global Consequences of Group Dynamics:Groupthink 159PREVENTING GROUPTHINK160Summary and Review 160Thinking Critically about Chapter 56161Deviance and Social Control What is Deviance? A Neutral Term STIGMA162164164164Deviance Is Relative 164How Norms Make Social Life Possible 166Sanctions 166IN SUMPRODUCING A MIRROR WITHIN148Technology and the Maximum-Security Society 119Dramaturgy: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life 119Stages 120Role Performance, Conflict, and Strain 120Sign-Vehicles 121Teamwork 123Becoming the Roles We Play 123IN SUMRED TAPE: A RULE IS A RULE 147 ALIENATION OF WORKERS 147 RESISTING ALIENATION 148Diversity in the Workplace Symbolic Interaction 114Stereotypes in Everyday Life 114Personal Space 118Eye Contact 119Smiling 119Body Language 119APPLIED BODY LANGUAGEBureaucracies 143The Characteristics of Bureaucracies 144Goal Displacement and the Perpetuationof Bureaucracies 146Dysfunctions of Bureaucracies 147SELF-FULFILLING STEREOTYPES AND PROMOTIONSThe Microsociological Perspective: Social Interactionin Everyday Life vii166Competing Explanations of Deviance: Sociobiology,Psychology, and Sociology Biosocial Explanations Psychological Explanations Sociological Explanations 167167167168The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Differential Association Theory 168168THE THEORY 168 FAMILIES 168 FRIENDS, NEIGHBORHOODS, AND SUBCULTURES 168 DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION IN THE CYBER AGE 169 PRISON OR FREEDOM? 169Control Theory THE THEORY170170Labeling Theory 172REJECTING LABELS: HOW PEOPLE NEUTRALIZE DEVIANCE 172 EMBRACING LABELS: THE EXAMPLE OFOUTLAW BIKERS 173 LABELS CAN BE POWERFUL 173 HOW DO LABELS WORK? 174 IN SUM 17412/12/17 12:58 AM

viii ContentsThe Functionalist Perspective 175Can Deviance Really Be Functional for Society? 175Strain Theory: How Mainstream Values ProduceDeviance 175FOUR DEVIANT PATHS176 IN SUMSTREET CRIME 176 WHITE-COLLAR CRIMEGENDER AND CRIME 179 IN SUM 180180180180181Reactions to Deviance 181Street Crime and Prisons 182The Decline of Violent Crime 185Recidivism 185The Death Penalty and Bias 186188 GENDER188 The Trouble with Official Statistics The Medicalization of Deviance: Mental Illness NEITHER MENTAL NOR ILLNESS? MENTALLY ILL 1921901917210210CONTROLLING PEOPLE’S IDEAS 210 CONTROLLING INFORMATION 211 STIFLING CRITICISM 211 BIGBROTHER TECHNOLOGY 211 IN SUM 211Comparative Social Stratification Social Stratification in Great Britain Social Stratification in the Former Soviet Union 212212212Global Stratification: Three Worlds The Most Industrialized Nations The Industrializing Nations The Least Industrialized Nations Modifying the Model 213214217218218How Did the World’s Nations Become Stratified? 221Colonialism 221World System Theory 222Culture of Poverty 223Evaluating the Theories 223Maintaining Global Stratification 224Neocolonialism 224RELEVANCE TODAY191 THE HOMELESS224Multinational Corporations The Need for a More Humane Approach Summary and Review 193Thinking Critically about Chapter 6209209How Do Elites Maintain Stratification? Soft Control versus Force 176178 The Conflict Perspective Class, Crime, and the Criminal Justice System The Criminal Justice System as an Instrumentof Oppression GEOGRAPHY 187 SOCIAL CLASSRACE–ETHNICITY 188IN SUM176Illegitimate Opportunity Structures: SocialClass and Crime IN SUMLenski’s Synthesis 193BUYING POLITICAL STABILITY CONSEQUENCES 225224225 UNANTICIPATEDTechnology and Global Domination 194225Strains in the Global System: Uneasy Realignments Global Stratification 195Systems of Social Stratification 197Slavery 198CAUSES OF SLAVERY 198 CONDITIONS OFSLAVERY 199 BONDED LABOR IN THE NEWWORLD 199 SLAVERY IN THE NEW WORLD 199 SLAVERY TODAY 200201 Estate 203WOMEN IN THE ESTATE SYSTEM203Class 204Global Stratification and the Status of Females 204The Global Superclass 204What Determines Social Class? Karl Marx: The Means of Production Max Weber: Property, Power, and Prestige IN SUM205205206206Why Is Social Stratification Universal? 206The Functionalist View: Motivating QualifiedPeople 207DAVIS AND MOORE’S EXPLANATION 207 TUMIN’SCRITIQUE OF DAVIS AND MOORE 207 IN SUM 208The Conflict Perspective: Class Conflictand Scarce Resources MOSCA’S ARGUMENT 208 MARX’S ARGUMENT 209 CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF CONFLICT THEORY 209A01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 88226227Social Class in the United States 228What Is Social Class? 230Property 230Caste 200INDIA’S RELIGIOUS CASTES 200 SOUTH AFRICAA U.S. RACIAL CASTE SYSTEM 202Summary and Review 226Thinking Critically about Chapter 7208DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN WEALTH AND INCOME 230 DISTRIBUTION OF PROPERTY 231 DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME 231Power 234THE DEMOCRATIC FACADE234 THE POWER ELITE 234Prestige 235OCCUPATIONS AND PRESTIGEPRESTIGE 235235 DISPLAYINGStatus Inconsistency 236Sociological Models of Social Class Updating Marx Updating Weber 238238239THE CAPITALIST CLASS 240 THE UPPER-MIDDLECLASS 240 THE LOWER-MIDDLE CLASS 241 THE WORKING CLASS 241 THE WORKING POOR 241 THE UNDERCLASS 242Consequences of Social Class Physical Health Mental Health Family Life CHOICE OF HUSBAND OR WIFECHILD REARING 244242243243244244 DIVORCE244 12/12/17 12:58 AM

ContentsEducation 244Religion 245Politics 245Crime and Criminal Justice 246Social Mobility Three Types of Social Mobility Women in Studies of Social Mobility The Pain of Social Mobility: Two Distinct Worlds 246246248249Poverty 251Drawing the Poverty Line 251Who Are the Poor? 253BREAKING A MYTH 253 THE GEOGRAPHY OFPOVERTY 253 EDUCATION 254 FAMILY STRUCTURE:THE FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY 254 RACE– ETHNICITY 254 AGE AND POVERTY 255Children of Poverty 255The Dynamics of Poverty versus the Culture of Poverty Why Are People Poor? Deferred Gratification Where Is Horatio Alger? The Social Functionsof a Myth Global Patterns of Intergroup Relations 281Genocide 281IN SUM9Racial–Ethnic Relations in the United States European Americans IN SUM286UMBRELLA TERM 286 COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN 286 UNAUTHORIZED IMMIGRANTS 287 RESIDENCE 288   SPANISH 288 ECONOMIC WELL-BEING 289 POLITICS 290African Americans 259Asian Americans 263265265THE REALITY OF HUMAN VARIETY 265 THE MYTH OFPURE RACES 265 THE MYTH OF A FIXED NUMBER OF RACES 266 THE MYTH OF RACIAL SUPERIORITY 267 THE MYTH CONTINUES 268Ethnic Groups Minority Groups and Dominant Groups NOT SIZE, BUT DOMINANCE AND DISCRIMINATIONEMERGENCE OF MINORITY GROUPS 269290RISING EXPECTATIONS AND CIVIL STRIFE 291 CONTINUED GAINS 291 CURRENT LOSSES 292 RACE OR SOCIAL CLASS? A SOCIOLOGICAL DEBATE 292 RACISM AS AN E VERYDAY BURDEN 293293A BACKGROUND OF DISCRIMINATION 293 DIVERSITY 294 REASONS FOR FINANCIAL SUCCESS 294 POLITICS 294269269269 Prejudice and Discrimination 270Learning Prejudice 270DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION 272 LEARNING PREJUDICE FROM ASSOCIATING WITH OTHERS 272 THE FAR-REACHINGNATURE OF PREJUDICE 273 INTERNALIZING DOMINANTNORMS 275Individual and Institutional Discrimination 275276Theories of Prejudice Psychological Perspectives 276277FRUSTRATION AND SCAPEGOATS 277 THEAUTHORITARIAN PERSONALITY 277Sociological Perspectives FUNCTIONALISM 278 CONFLICT THEORY 278 SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM 279 HOW LABELSCREATE PREJUDICE 279 LABELS AND SELF-FULFILLING STEREOTYPES 279295DIVERSITY OF GROUPS 295 FROM TREATIES TOGENOCIDE AND POPULATION TRANSFER 295 THEINVISIBLE MINORITY AND SELF-DETERMINATION 296 THE CASINOS 296 DETERMINING IDENTITY AND GOALS 297Looking toward the Future The Immigration Controversy The Affirmative Action Controversy 297297299A BRIEF HISTORY 299 SUPREME COURTRULINGS 299 THE BAMBOO CURTAIN 299 THE POTENTIAL SOLUTION 299Ethnic Work: Constructing Our Racial–Ethnic Identity 270A01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 9285Native Americans Laying the Sociological Foundation Race: Reality and Myth 275 HEALTH CARE283284Latinos (Hispanics) 257257257262Race and Ethnicity HOME MORTGAGES282Population Transfer 282Internal Colonialism 282Segregation 282Assimilation 283Multiculturalism (Pluralism) 283Peering into the Future: Will We Live in a Three-TierSociety? 260Summary and Review 261Thinking Critically about Chapter 8ix278Less Racism Toward a True Multicultural Society Summary and Review 300Thinking Critically about Chapter 910300300302Gender and Age 303Inequalities of Gender 305Issues of Sex and Gender The Sociological Significance of Gender Gender Differences in Behavior: Biology or Culture? The Dominant Position in Sociology Opening the Door to Biology 305305307307307A MEDICAL ACCIDENT 307 THE VIETNAM VETERANSSTUDY 308 MORE RESEARCH ON HUMANS 308 IN SUM 309Gender Inequality in Global Perspective How Did Females Become a Minority Group? GLOBAL VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN313 IN SUMGender Inequality in the United States Fighting Back: The Rise of Feminism Gender Inequality in Health Care 31231231531531531812/12/17 12:58 AM

x ContentsGender Inequality in Education 319THE PAST 319 A FUNDAMENTAL CHANGEGENDER TRACKING 321320 Gender Inequality in the Workplace The Pay Gap 326326LABELS AND PERCEPTION 327 NOT JUST A “MANTHING” 327 SEXUAL ORIENTATION 327FORCIBLE RAPE 327 DATE (ACQUAINTANCE)RAPE 328 MURDER 328 VIOLENCE IN THEHOME 329 FEMINISM AND GENDEREDVIOLENCE 329 SOLUTIONS 329Glimpsing the Future—with Hope 330330331331331Industrialization and the Graying of the Globe THE LIFE SPAN333The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Shifting Meanings of Growing Old The Influence of the Mass Media IN SUM335335336336The Functionalist Perspective Disengagement Theory EVALUATION OF THE THEORY337337337Activity Theory EVALUATION OF THE THEORY337338Continuity Theory EVALUATION OF THE THEORY338338 IN SUM: THE FUNCTIONALIST PERSECTIVE338The Conflict Perspective Fighting for Resources: Social Security Legislation “Old People Are Sucking Us Dry”: IntergenerationalCompetition and Conflict IN SUM: THE CONFICT PERSPECTIVESummary and Review 342Thinking Critically about Chapter 10339339339340Looking toward the Future New Views: Creative Aging 11332332The Graying of America 342342345Politics: Establishing and Exercising Leadership 347Power, Authority, and Violence Authority and Legitimate Violence Traditional Authority Rational–Legal Authority A01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 10353353354355 THIRD PARTIES355Voting Patterns 355SOCIAL INTEGRATION 356 ALIENATION 357 APATHY 357 THE GENDER AND RACIAL–ETHNIC GAPSIN VOTING 357358347347348349358 Who Rules the United States? The Functionalist Perspective: Pluralism IN SUM359359359The Conflict Perspective: The Power Elite IN SUM360360Which View Is Right? 360War and Terrorism: Implementing PoliticalObjectives 361Why Countries Go to War 361THE FLESH AND BLOOD OF WAR362Terrorism 362The Economy: Work in the Global Village 363The Transformation of Economic Systems 364Preindustrial Societies: The Birth of Inequality 364Industrial Societies: The Birth of the Machine 365Postindustrial Societies: The Birth of theInformation Age 365Biotech Societies: The Merger of Biology andEconomics 366World Economic Systems 367Capitalism 367WHAT CAPITALISM ISCAPITALISM IS 367367 WHAT STATESocialism 368WHAT SOCIALISM IS 368 SOCIALISM INPRACTICE 369 DEMOCRATIC SOCIALISM369Ideologies of Capitalism and Socialism Criticisms of Capitalism and Socialism The Convergence of Capitalism and Socialism CHANGES IN SOCIALISM: CONVERGENCECAPITALISM: CONVERGENCE 372344Politics and the Economy The U.S. Political System Political Parties and Elections Polling and Predictions LOBBYING BY SPECIAL-INTEREST GROUPSTHE MONEY 358329IN SUM350350351353Lobbyists and Special-Interest Groups The Changing Face of Politics Aging in Global Perspective Extremes of Attitudes and Practices 350Types of Government Monarchies: The Rise of the State Democracies: Citizenship as a Revolutionary Idea Dictatorships and Oligarchies: The Seizure of Power SLICES FROM THE CENTER327327Inequalities of Aging 349The Transfer of Authority HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 322 GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS 322 THE “TESTOSTERONE BONUS” 322 REASONS FOR THE GENDER PAY GAP 324 THE CEOPOWER GAP—AND THE NEW FEMALE PREMIUM 325Gender and Violence Violence against Women 349THE THREAT POSED BY CHARISMATIC LEADERS322322Is the Glass Ceiling Cracking? Sexual Harassment—and Worse Charismatic Authority 369369370370 CHANGES INThe Globalization of Capitalism A New Global Structure and its Effects onWorkers Stagnant Paychecks The New Economic System and the Old Divisionsof Wealth The Global Superclass 37237237537537712/12/17 12:58 AM

ContentsWhat Lies Ahead? A New World Order? Unity and Disunity Inevitable Changes Summary and Review 378Thinking Critically about Chapter 1112377378378Marriage and Family 381Marriage and Family in Global Perspective What Is a Family? What Is Marriage? Common Cultural Themes 383383384384MATE SELECTION 384 DESCENT 386 INHERITANCE 386 AUTHORITY 386Marriage and Family in Theoretical Perspective 386The Functionalist Perspective: Functions andDysfunctions 386WHY THE FAMILY IS UNIVERSAL 387 FUNCTIONS OFTHE INCEST TABOO 387 ISOLATION AND EMOTIONAL OVERLOAD 387The Conflict Perspective: Struggles betweenHusbands and Wives INEVITABLE CONFLICTRELATIONS 387387387 CHANGING POWER388CHANGES IN TRADITIONAL GENDER ORIENTATIONS 388 PAID WORK AND HOUSEWORK 388 MORE CHILDCARE 389 TOTAL HOURS 389 A GENDER DIVISIONOF LABOR 389The Family Life Cycle 389Love and Courtship in Global Perspective 389Marriage 391THE SOCIAL CHANNELS OF LOVE AND MARRIAGE391Childbirth 392IDEAL FAMILY SIZE 392 MARITAL SATISFACTIONAFTER CHILDBIRTH 394Child Rearing 394MARRIED COUPLES AND SINGLE MOTHERS 394 SINGLE FATHERS 394 DAY CARE 394 NANNIES 395 SOCIAL CLASS 395 HELICOPTER PARENTING 396 THE RIGHT WAY TO REAR CHILDREN 396Family transitions 397397 WIDOWHOOD397Diversity in U.S. Families African American Families Latino Families Asian American Families Native American Families IN SUM398398399400400400One-Parent Families Couples without Children Blended Families Gay and Lesbian Families 401401402402CHILDREN REARED BY GAY AND LESBIANCOUPLES 403Trends in U.S. Families The Changing Timetable of Family Life: Marriageand Childbirth A01 HENS6587 13 SE FM.indd 11COHABITATION AND MARRIAGE: THE ESSENTIAL DIFFERENCE 404 DOES COHABITATION MAKEMARRIAGE STRONGER? 405403403405Divorce and Remarriage Ways of Measuring Divorce Divorce and Mixed Racial–Ethnic Marriages Symbolic Interactionism and the Misuse of Statistics Children of Divorce 405405407407408NEGATIVE EFFECTS 408 WHAT HELPS CHILDREN ADJUSTTO DIVORCE? 408 PERPETUATING DIVORCE 409Grandchildren of Divorce: Ripples to the Future Fathers’ Contact with Children after Divorce The Ex-Spouses Remarriage: “I Do” Again and Again 409409409410Two Sides of Family Life The Dark Side of Family Life: Battering, Child Abuse,Marital Rape, and Incest 410410SPOUSE BATTERING 410 CHILD ABUSE 410 MARITAL AND INTIMACY RAPE 411 INCEST 411The Bright Side of Family Life: Successful Marriages SUCCESSFUL MARRIAGESThe Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Gender,Housework, and Child Care TRANSITIONAL ADULTHOODCohabitation 404The “Sandwich Generation” and Elder Care 380xi411412The Future of Marriage and Family Summary and Review 413Thinking Critically about Chapter 1213412414Education and Religion 415Education: Transferring Knowledge and Skills 417Education in Global Perspective Education and Industrialization 417418INDUSTRIALIZATION AND MANDATORY EDUCATIONTHE EXPANSION OF EDUCATION 418418 Education in the Most Industrialized Nations:Japan 419Education in the Industrializing Nations: Russia 421Education in the Least Industrialized Nations: Egypt 421The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits Teaching Knowledge and Skills Cultural Transmission of Values Social Integration 422422422423INTEGRATING IMMIGRANTS 423 STABILIZING SOCIETY:MAINTAINING THE STATUS QUO 423 INTEGRATING PEOPLEWITH DISABILITIES 423Gatekeeping (Social Placement) Replacing Family Functions IN SUM423424424The Conflict Perspective: Perpetuating Social Inequality The Hidden Curriculum: Reproducing the SocialClass Structure Tilting the Tests: Discrimination by IQ Stacking the Deck: Unequal Funding The Bottom Line: Family Background 424424425425426REPRODUCING THE SOCIAL CLASS STRUCTURE 426 REPRODUCING THE RACIAL–ETHNIC STRUCTURE 426 IN SUM 42612/12/17 12:58 AM

xii ContentsThe Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: TeacherExpectations 426The Rist Research 426How Do Teacher Expectations Work? 427Self-Expectations 428Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions 429Mediocrity 429THE RISING TIDE OF MEDIOCRITY 429 THE SATs 430 GRADE INFLATION, SOCIAL PROMOTION, AND FUNCTIONAL ILLITERACY 430Overcoming Mediocrity 431RAISING STANDARDS FOR TEACHERSABOUT HIGHER STANDARDS 431431 A WARNING432Violence 432The Need for Educational Reform 433Religion: Establishing Meaning 434What Is Religion? Durkheim’s Research 434The Functionalist Perspective Functions of Religion 434434MEANING AND PURPOSE 435 EMOTIONAL OMFORT 435 SOCIAL SOLIDARITY 435 CGUIDELINES FOR EVERYDAY LIFE 435 SOCIAL CONTROL 435 SOCIAL CHANGE 436Dysfunctions of Religion 436RELIGION AS JUSTIFICATION FOR PERSECUTION, WAR,AND TERRORISM 436The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective 436Religious Symbols 436Beliefs 437Religious Experience 437Rituals 437The Conflict Perspective Opium of the People Legitimating Social Inequalities 440440440Religion and the Spirit of Capitalism 440Types of Religious Groups 442Cult 442Sect 444Church 444Ecclesia 444Religion in the United States Characteristics of Members SOCIAL CLASS445445445 RACE–ETHNICITY446DIVERSITY 446 PLURALISM AND FREEDOM 446 TOLERATION 447 THE ELECTRONIC CHURCH 447The Future of Religion Summary and Review 449Thinking Critically about Chapter 1314Population Growth Why the Least Industrialized Nations HaveSo Many Children Consequences of Rapid Population Growth Population Pyramids as a Tool for Understanding The Three Demographic Variables FERTILITY463 MORTALITY463 MIGRATION460461462463465468The Development of

Essentials of Sociology A Down-to-Earth Approach Thirteenth Edition James M. Henslin Southern Illinois