USAID/MSI-IraqTarabot ProjectThe Civil Service Reform Program (CSR Program)Human Resources Management UnitTraining and DevelopmentEFFECTIVE SUPERVISORY SKILLSFor The TRAINING CENTERSIn The MINISTRIES AND GOVERNORATES-IRAQTRAINER S GUIDELINEJune, 2012Baghdad-Iraq


TRAINING OF TRAINERS (TOT)EFFECTIVE SUPERVISORY SKILLSTRAINER GUIDELINEThe Main ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITIESAS LEADERIN COMMUNICATION IN WORKPLACE.AS COACHMAKE GOOD DELEGATATIONAS MOTIVATORESTABLISH TEAM WORKAim:This course provides participants with strategies for effective supervision, and the skills andknowledge required to communicate with and lead a team and work group in a workenvironment. The course includes providing leadership, communication, coaching, delegation,motivation, and team work skills.Training Objectives: Understanding good Leadership BehaviorsLearning the difference between Leadership and ManagementGaining insight into your Patterns, Beliefs and RulesDefining Qualities and StrengthsDetermining how well you Perceive what's going on around youPolishing Interpersonal Skills and Communication SkillsLearning about Commitment and How to Move Things ForwardMaking Key DecisionsHandling Your and Other Employees’ StressEmpowering, Motivating and Inspiring OthersLeading by ExampleTarget Group:This TOT training guide/course has been developed for the training specialists in the trainingcenters in the ministries and governorates in Iraq to providing to them the tool and techniqueson the effective supervisory skills to be able to train the new managers and supervisors thoseare supervising a team of employees in the workplace, i.e. frontline managers, team leaders,supervisors.Duration: 4 Days/2 Sessions/Day/Total 8 Training Sessions2

Course Outline: Supervisory Roles and egatingManaging yourselfMotivatingTeam WorkCourse Content: Supervisor Roles and ResponsibilitiesPrinciples of Good Leadership:Developing Team Communication and Cooperation:Developing Team Capacity Be a Coach TeamDelegating Work Duties with Your TeamExplain the Supervisor s in Motivating Others.Establish Team WorkMethods and Approaches:The Training used an interactive and participatory methods and approaches and applyingvarious types of techniques: presentation, group and individual exercises, self-assessment tooland techniques, case studies, open discussion and question and answer, brainstorming and roleplay methodsCourse Outcomes: roles and responsibilitiesPrinciples of good leadershipParticipating in team planning.Developing team commitment and co-operation.Managing and developing team performance.6. Participating in and facilitating work teams.Evaluation Training Course:1. Assess Participants KnowledgePre-Test and Post Test2. Assess Participants Performance: Interactive Discussion, Observe Level of Participation,Valuable Comments and Feedback3. Evaluation Form for the Overall Training Package3

I. Supervisor's Roles And Responsibilities Trainer Presentation:IntroductionMost managers and employees learn by trial and error with varying degrees of success.But Supervisor job is far too important to be left to chance and the good news is that youcan learn with some help and guidance how to be successful in it.The Four Functions of Management:The management process consists of four primary functions:Planning, Organizing, Motivating, and ControllingManagement FunctionsWhat Do Supervisors Do?Supervision of a group of employees often includes:1. Conducting basic management skills (decision making, problem solving, planning,delegation and meeting management)2. Organizing their department and teams3. Noticing the need for and designing new job roles in the group4. Hiring new employees5. Training new employees4

6. Employee performance management (setting goals, observing and giving feedback,addressing performance issues, firing employees, etc.)7. Conforming to personnel policies and other internal regulationsManagerial Elements of the Supervisor’s Role:A successful supervisor with supervisory skills should be able to fulfill the following elements.1. Setting objectives2. Forecasting3. Planning4. Organizing (Coordinating)5. Motivating6. Monitoring and controlling Brainstorming Exercise:Traditional Definition of SupervisionRelational Definition of Supervision Essential functions of supervision; Management, education,And support Old Style of Supervision Hierarchical Authoritarian Adversarial Punitive Trainer Presentation:THE ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SUPERVISORPlanningPlanning is the thinking that precedes doing. It means setting goals and objectives for anorganization, and preparing plans and schedules to accomplish those goals. Strong managersplan well and effectively communicate that planning to their employees. Everyone within thework unit needs to know what the plan is and how it will affect them.5

To see if you are an effective planner, review the following list of the elements of planning.Check ( ) those statements that describe the tasks you always or almost always use in planning.1. I have a written annual plan and personal performance goals which have been agreedupon by me and the person to whom I report2. I work with my team regularly to help them set SMART goals that support theirworkplace development3. I break down my annual goals into shorter-term goals4. I review the progress of my goals regularly5. I have a method for measuring and keeping track of my goal achievement6. I ensure that the members of my team know on a regular basis the status of the7. Organization's goal achievement8. My goals for myself as a Foreman and for my team tie into the Organization's goals9. I set goals that stretch and challenge me10. I achieve a high proportion of the goals I set11. I enjoy challenges, and see them as opportunities for growth Individual ExerciseSupervisor's RoleIn one sentence, write downWhat You Think Your Main Role As A Supervisor -------------------Definition:A role is a main activity or two that you are charged with undertaking.The Answers Could Be: Provide Leadership And Collaborative Direction To My Staff; To Be A Team Leader; To Ensure My Staff Have The Human and Physical Resources To Undertake Their WorkIn An Efficient Manner.6

Learning Activity Group Working ExerciseQuestions and Steps;What are your main supervisory responsibilities in your present job?List them on a separate piece of paper (you should have 5 to 7).Once you have a list; then rank them in order of importanceWhen you have completed this activity, look at the examples other examples ofSupervisory responsibilities that you have listed before.It is sometimes easier to think of these under two main headings:Job related & (b) Employees related:Job Related Employees RelatedCost ctivityQualityStandardsTraining 7CoachingCommunicatingı DelegatingDiscipliningLeadershipManaging yourselfMotivatingSupervising others

Learning Activity: Working Group ExerciseCurrent Obstacles & ChallengesWhat obstacles do you personally face now that makes it difficult for you to fulfillsome of these responsibilities?Current Obstacles & ChallengesThey May Stem:From youFrom your division/section orFrom the organization as a whole.Group PresentationList Them, Presented and Then RankThem in Order of Importance. Trainer PresentationNew Ways of SupervisingOver the years, the role of a supervisor has changed significantly from being a top down,autocratic order-giver to a team leader, coach and motivator.FromFromFromFromFromordering to asking; and consulting.telling to listening and asking questions.policing to coaching.each person for himself to teamwork.fear to mutual respect.8

This change has come about, not because employees are becoming "soft-hearted," butbecause it is now very clear that employees are more productive if they are happy, motivatedand upbeat.This takes place in an employee-friendly environment. The change is one of enlightened selfinterest on the part of managers who decide what training is appropriate for their supervisors.Guidelines for Supervisory BehaviorYou have to having a clear idea of what is acceptable behavior for a supervisoryThis could be good; but it could be disastrous if any of these employees is dictatorialand demanding, or weak and indecisive.A major benefit of this supervisory training program is that it provides you withguidelines about what is acceptable supervisory behavior, and what is not. Individual ExercisePersonal ProductivityI clearly understand my prioritiesI spend only a small portion of my time in crisis managementI delegate work to others in an effective mannerMy area of responsibility runs smoothly when I am not thereI accept personal responsibility when I make a mistakeI ensure that meetings I run have a clear agenda and start and finish on timeI plan my work in advance and work the planI rarely procrastinate or leave things to the last minuteI keep others informed, in advance, when I cannot meet their deadlinesConclusion:Group/s Understand Properly the Roles and Responsibilities of the Supervisor9

II. Supervisor As Leader:Leaders Make Things HappenIntroduction:This training session is to develop Participant’s Leadership Skills so they have the confidenceand authority to make a real difference in their organizations.Leadership is one of those things that are often awfully hard to define but you know when yousee it, and you definitely know when it's missing. You may need them to demonstrate the kindof leadership behaviors that others aspire to.ObjectivesBy the end of this training participants will be able to:1.Define leadership.2.Explain what is meant by dynamic and effective leadership.3.Identify and describe a minimum of four leadership styles.4.Discuss the scope of leadership theories.5.Tell how to determine the most appropriate leadership style, using Leadershipmodels.Training Sessions:Session1: 2 Hrs.Objective: Opening and introductionDefining Effective supervisionExternal and internal supervisionKnowledge, skills and attitudes of effective supervisorsProcess of supervisionDefine leadership and explain What is meant by dynamic and effective leadership10

Methodology: Brainstorming – Questions & AnswersSubjects: . The Importance of Leadership: Leadership is the process of influencing other toward the achievement of organizationalgoals. Successful organizations have a dynamic and effective leadership.oDynamic: Responsive to the changing needs of their followers.oEffective: Accomplishing organizational goals through competent andcommitted followers . Leadership Style (the way you supervise):oTypes of leadership styles with which you are familiar:oMost leadership styles you know represent an either/or approach:1. Either the task is most important;2. Or the employees are most important.oEither/Or approaches don t workoDynamic and effective leaders vary their leadership style according to thesituation and the needs of the follower in the specific situation! Four Basic Leadership Styles:Directing – Coaching – Supporting – Delegating11

HighSupportive BehaviorSupportingCoachingLow DirectionHigh SupportHigh DirectionHigh SupportS-3S-2DelegatingLow directionLow supportS-4LowDirectingHigh DirectionLow supportS-1Directive Behavior Leadership Theories and PrinciplesSession 2:Objectives:-Discuss in brief the scope of leadership theories.-Discuss how to determine the most appropriate leadership styleMethodology: Presentation – Working groupSubjects:12High

--Scope of leadership theoriesPrinciples of good leadershipQuick review on leadership styleOverview of Leadership Theories:o There are many theories and models of leadershipo Doing leadership: while fundamental theories of leadership are relativelyeasy to understand the actual practice of leadership can be “complex anddifficult”o Summary of leadership theoriesPrinciples of good leadership: Understanding what makes employees tick: Open Discussion Handling difficult employees effectively: Presentation and Open Discussion Motivating and inspiring team members: Open Discussion Maximizing your own leadership style: PresentationDEFINE LEADERSHIP MODEL GROUP EXERCISE1. Define leadership.2. Briefly describe the following styles of leadership: Authoritative: Participatory: Delegating:13

Laissez faire:3.Briefly comment on these above leadership models: Three Positive Skills: Three Negative Behaviors:c. The four development levels of followers:D-1:D-2:D-3:D-4:Self-Assessment Survey Directions Individual ExerciseRead through the list below without marking it up, then the second time around, Put a YES, NOor MAYBE to record what you think your skill or knowledge level is.This will give you good idea where your strengths and weaknesses are.Supervisor's Self-Assessment SurveyLeadership I have a clear understanding of the organization's goals and objectives14

I understand how my role fits into the goals of the OrganizationI have a clear vision of the objectives of my areaI communicate the organization and area goals to the employees under my supervision(my team) on a regular basisI give frequent feedback to the employees in my team to encourage their developmentand theachievement of their goals and objectivesI recognize and celebrate the successes of those in my teamI feel that the employees in the organization are our most important assetsI believe that I treat others as I would like to be treated myselfI consciously work at setting an example of effective leadershipI am actively working on developing a positive self-imageMy own enthusiasm is increasing the desire of my team to do betterIII. Supervisor CommunicationIn WorkplaceCommunication in the WorkplaceDeveloping Relationship to Help You, Your Teamand Your Division Achieve More.Session: 2 sessions and 2 Hrs. for each sessionObjective: -Supervisor communicating effectively-Practicing skills and attitudes: communicationMethodology: Presentation – Working Group – Role PlaySubject: Knowing and Reading OthersListening; active listeningFeedbackPresentingIntroduction: Presentation15

Communication Cycle; Sender – Method – Message - Communication Environment –Receiver--Verbal CommunicationNon-Verbal CommunicationMain Points for WGs:- Communication Models- Participants communication experience- Communication Obstacles Think about a time when you have a difficult or frustrating timecommunicating with someone at --------- Briefly describe the -------------- What assumptions were made that might have had an impact on thesituation? What feeling were you experiencing as you were going through thesituation? How did the situation end or get resolved?Group will give feedback about this above situation Individual Exercise-How would you describe your general communication style?What communication style is more satisfied to you?How do you think others would describe your communication style?Communications and Building Relationships-I listen to understand the other person's perspective before I give mine16

-I always wait until others have finished talking before I speak; I don't interruptI spend time planning important communications, written or oralI develop strong business relationships with the employees on my team as well as withsuppliers and customersWhen employees bring to my attention my own negative performance issues, I respond in anon-defensive mannerI speak calmly to employees, not raising my voice, regardless of the issue at handIf I have an issue with someone, I always deal directly with them, I do not talk behind theirbackI observe others' non-verbal communication to assess how they are really feelingI maintain an open mind in most discussions- I seek and consider other employees’ opinionsConclusion:Who Are You and Who We AreIV. Coaching SkillsSupervisor Coaching for SuccessThe Coaching Leadership Style is used with more established team and staffmembers who have certain basic skills, but still have too much to learn.The style is well suited to teams who need support in solving problem and gaps inperformance. in this style the effective supervisor takes the initiative in directingand monitoring the performance needs.With a very simple coaching strategy consisting of just 5 Basic Steps;you can help your employees achieve what they think are impossible outcomes. Group ExerciseA Simple 5 Step Coaching Strategy:Step 1 – Clarify the goalStep 2 – Make the goal realStep 3 – Strategize the action steps for achieving the goal17

Step 4 – Your coaching strategy must include accountability for your employeestep 5 – Celebrate each step toward the goal Detailed Information: Trainer Presentation1. Specify your employee ’s goal in an objective and measurable way2. Have your employee imagine in detail what it will be like when he meets hisgoal. Where will they be? What are their surroundings? Who are they with?What are they doing?3. What are the first things they need to do develop a plan to reach their goaland what is the timeframe it needs to be completed?4. Keep track of employee s commitments and make sure they stick to them.Being accountable for their actions will make your client feel empowered bytheir progress5. Celebrate “impossible goals are being achieved everyday”. Brainstorming Exercise:What Skills Supervisor Needs To Be A Good Coach in Workplace?Skills: Spend time with each staff member Identify topics of common interest Assess individual characters and needs Communicate intensively Be directive when necessary Reward positive behavior Be strict to maintain standardsDevelopment of the Team and increasing the motivation of the staff members tomaintain work standards requires that they take more responsibility for theirwork. Staff members are encouraged to tackle and solve the problems at theirdivision/section.18

Coaching Is Effective When The Supervisor Will: Be clear about standardsBe clear what is expectedInstruct extensivelyDevelop individual s technical skillsCheck performancePoint out errorsBe considerate but firmHelp learning by showing interest in learning problems Individual ExerciseSupervisor Self-Assessment:- I coach my employees to help them achieve success in what they do- I provide one-on-one sessions with each person who reports to me- I ensure that during coaching sessions the other person(s) talk more than I do- I really listen to understand the concerns of others.- I help others to be self-aware of the areas in which they deed to improve or develop.- I support the goals set by individuals on my team.- I help members of my team to be accountable for their goals and performance.- I deal openly, constructively and promptly with any negative performance issues.- I encourage and ask for feedback on my own performance from my team19

Enhancing Future Results I am continually upgrading my skills I am aware of areas I need to improve I ask advice from employees with more experience I admit when I do not know something I invest time in training or coaching others I spend time weekly to study or read I ask others regularly how they think I could improveV. Supervisor Good DelegationDELEGATION SKILLS FOR LEADERSThe Learning Objectives: Understand the role of delegating as part of the management process Identify delegation strengths and remove the obstacles that may get in the way of successfuldelegation Determine the appropriate tasks to delegate and select the right people to do them Learn the important management skills required to successfully delegate Acquire an understanding of how delegation can help employees develop, grow, and become evenmore responsibleHow-To Aspects of Delegating:You can delegate for some of the planning process to direct reports.For now, we will do it in a general way.It is important in any organization to get employees to buy into the plan.20

One way to do this effectively is to get them involved in developing the plan inthe first place.Employees will be more enthusiastic and accepting of a plan they helped createthan one that is just delivered in a top-down fashion.This can be accomplished through delegation.Having decided to have team members participate in the planning process.Because you have overall responsibility for the planning, it is very unlikely thatyou are going to delegate all the responsibility.But there are activities that can be delegated that will help you complete theplanning process.Of the seven planning elements listed earlier, which ones do you think youremployees could be involved in?Write the numbers of those planning elements ---Depending on your creativity, you might list any or all of the seven planningelements.But the most likely ones are #2, #3, #4, and #6.Let’s work through an example using element #3:Formulating and establishing policies and procedures to accomplish goals andobjectives.Making certain that new policies don’t interfere with subordinate performance.21

Policies and procedures tend to help or hinder performance, so they have adirect effect on your team.Since you are an enlightened manager, you would like to have employee inputas to what policies and procedures will help their work process.Let’s examine a case study of what might be delegated.How Well Do I Delegate?Self-assessment is an ongoing management skill. Strong leaders continually assess their skills;this allows them to continue to develop and become even stronger performers.You can do the same thing.The self-assessment exercises in this section will provide you with considerable insight into yourwillingness and ability to delegate. These exercises can also help you identify areas of concernregarding how you currently delegate. Individual ExerciseIdentify Your StrengthsThis exercise is an opportunity to identify your strengths and determine where improvementwould be beneficial. Read each statement and circle the number that best describes you. Thehigher the number, the more the statement describes you. When you have finished, total thenumbers circled in the space provided. DO NOT ALTER OR DELETE THIS LINE - It is here forspacing purposes.Each of my employees knows what I expect of them. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1I involve employees in goal setting, problem solving, 7 6 5 4 3 2 1and other important issues confronting my work unit.I place my personal emphasis on planning, organizing, 7 6 5 4 3 2 1motivating, and controlling, rather than completing tasksothers could do.22

When assigning work, I select the assignee thoughtfully. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1When problems occur on projects I have delegated, I 7 6 5 4 3 2 1give the employees a reasonable chance to work themout for themselves.When I delegate work to team members, I make certain 7 6 5 4 3 2 1they understand what to do and what is expected.I see delegation as one way to help employees develop 7 6 5 4 3 2 1their skills, and I assign work accordingly.I support and help employees in emergencies, but I do 7 6 5 4 3 2 1not permit them to leave work for me to do.When I assign work, I stress the results desired but also 7 6 5 4 3 2 1show my willingness to help the employee whereneeded.When I delegate a project that affects others, I make sure everyone 7 6 5 4 3 2 1concerned knows who is in charge.When delegating work, I grant the authority to do the job based 7 6 5 4 3 2 1on an employee’s experience level.I hold my employees responsible for results of delegated tasks and projects. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Total:A score between 72 and 84 suggests you are on target. A score between 48 and 71 indicates youare getting by, but could improve. Anything below 48 means you need to make changes. Individual ExerciseSelecting the Right PeopleListed below are some critical elements in employee selection and placement.Indicate how well you perform by checking the appropriate item with .DO NOT ALTER OR DELETE THIS LINE - It is here for spacing purposes.Do ShouldWell Improve23

I analyze job requirements thoroughly before beginning the selection process. I always probe for objective evidence of a candidate’s skills, knowledge, past successes andfailures, dependability; and attitude toward work, co-workers, supervisors, and customers. I determine the type of project and task responsibility the applicant has had in previouspositions, and how he or she has handled authority. I make sure each applicant understands the job requirements and expected standards of performance. I describe my idea of teamwork to applicants and ask them to assess how they would workunder team conditions. In making a selection decision, I evaluate facts carefully and avoid coming to prematureconclusions or stereotyping. People I hire are placed in positions where there is potential for success. Group ExerciseCommon Barriers to DelegationIneffective delegators often rationalize their inadequacies. They may face or create obstacles(real or self-imposed) that hold them back from becoming more effective.In the following list of statements, indicate those that affect your delegation practices bychecking ( ) yes. If they do not affect you, check no. For accurate results, think about eachstatement carefully and be totally honest.DO NOT ALTER OR DELETE THIS LINE - It is here for spacing purposes.Yes No SELF-IMPOSED OBSTACLESI prefer to perform operating tasks, not management functions, because I understandthose tasks better and know how to do them.I do not have time to train my direct reports.I do not know how to delegate.Often I Do Not Know When to Delegate.oooooooI do not completely trust my employees, even my strong performers.My employees will not like me if I expect too much of them.Often I am not certain to whom I should delegate.It is easier and quicker to do things myself.We just cannot afford to make any mistakes.I am fearful about delegating too much.I am concerned about losing control.24

o I am not very interested in the development of any of my current employees.DO NOT ALTER OR DELETE THIS LINE - It is hereYesNo EMPLOYEE-IMPOSED OBSTACLESI cannot delegate because my employees lack experience and competence.My employees cannot adequately handle what they have.My team members resist responsibility.My employees fear my criticism and therefore avoid risk.My employees are not smart enough for me to safely delegate anything to them.YesNo SITUATION-IMPOSED OBSTACLESoooooMy manager expects me to handle the really important tasks personallyMy employees cannot be trusted to work on their own.The success of my work unit is totally my responsibility.I have no one to whom I can safely delegate.Most of my decisions are made under crisis conditions.If you have checked # for every statement; Congratulations that is a perfect score.Most likely, however, you have a few statements marked yes, indicating obstacles that affectyour ability to delegate.Keep in mind that as the leader you have the authority to make the changesneeded. Note here the obstacles that you see as priorities to work on as youfurther develop your delegation skills:Encourage participants to prepare case studies about their experience in different types ofobstacles in delegation process25

How to Removing Obstacles to DelegationIt is easy to allow these obstacles to get in the way. Let’s briefly look atsome ideas on how to remove them. Self-Imposed ObstaclesThe self-imposed obstacles are the easiest to deal with. You can often eliminate them bychanging your attitudes. Perhaps you need to look at your team members in a more positivelight. Place emphasis on what they can do rather than on what they cannot do. Becomewilling to give them a chance to get involved and to develop. Employee-Imposed ObstaclesIf you checked yes to obstacles in the employee-imposed obstacle category, you still haveconsiderable control to make positive changes. Again, a more positive attitude toward youremployees will be a big first step. If your team members do not have much experience, setup a plan to train and develop them.Let your goal be to turn those inexperienced employees into experienced ones. Every employeedeserves a chance to develop and gain experience.Delegating tasks and projects, with your involvement, will help them develop.Do you have a developmental plan for each one of your employees?If not, it is time to get started it will be a win-win situation for everyone.Situation-Imposed Obstacles ooooooooooAttitude also plays an important role with situation-imposed obstacles.Keep in mind that you are the leader and leaders take charge.The situation-imposed obstacles are under your control as much as anything else.Step up to the challenge and begin the process of eliminating them.If needed, develop a written action plan.Keep it simple by listing the positive steps you are willing to take to eliminate theseobstacles.Maybe another manager or your own manager can help.Do not be afraid to ask.Find the most successful leaders in your organization and ask how they manage thesechallenges.Remember, strong leaders are willing to act and make changes; they never give up.You Can Do the Same Thing26

VI. The Supervisor as MotivatorSession: 2 Hrs.Objectives:Upon comp

By the end of this training participants will be able to: 1. Define leadership. 2. Explain what is meant by dynamic and effective leadership. 3. Identify and describe a minimum of four leadership styles. 4. Discuss the scope of leadership theories. 5. Tell how to determine the most appropriate leadership style, using Leadership models. Training .