The Principal Parts ofVerbs, Irregular Verbs,and Verb TensesVerbs and Sentence Structure
The Principal Parts of VerbsVerbs take different forms in order toindicate time. These forms of verbs aretenses. “She talks about her plans” expresses actionin the present.“She talked about her plans” expresses actionthat occurred in the past.To use the tenses correctly, you mustknow how to form the principal parts ofverbs.
The Principal Parts of VerbsThe Principal Parts of the Verb TalkPresent: talkPresent Participle: (am, is, are, was,were) talkingPast: talkedPast Participle: (have, has, had) talked
The Principal Parts of VerbsThe Principal Parts of Regular VerbsPresent: most basic form of the verb savePresent Participle: helping verb am, is, are, was,or were verb with –ing ending am savingPast: verb with –ed ending savedPast Participle: helping verb have, has, or had verb with –ed ending have saved
The Principal Parts of VerbsThe Principal Parts of Irregular VerbsIrregular verbs do not follow the samepattern as regular verbs when forming thepast and past participle.You will need to memorize theseexceptions.When in doubt in your writing, look up thecorrect way to form the past and partparticiple of any verb.
Using Irregular VerbsTo RunPresent: runPresent Participle: amrunningPast: ran (notrunned)Past Participle: haverun (not have runned)To WritePresent: writePresent Participle: amwritingPast: wrotePast Participle: havewritten
Two Troublesome Irregular VerbsTo LayPresent: layPresent Participle: amlayingPast: laidPast Participle: have laidUse to mean “to putsomething down” or “toplace (something)”Almost always followedby a direct objectThe sailors laid theiruniforms on the bed.To LiePresent: liePresent Participle: amlyingPast: layPast Participle: have lainUse to mean “to rest in areclining position” or “tobe situated”Never followed by a directobjectThe sailors lay down onthe narrow bunk.
Two Troublesome Irregular VerbsTo SitPresent: sitPresent Participle: amsittingPast: satPast Participle: have satUse to mean “to beseated” or “to rest”Usually not followed by adirect object.We sat on the floor.To SetPresent: setPresent Participle: amsettingPast: setPast Participle: have setUse to mean “to putsomething in a certainplace or positionUsually followed by adirect object.He set the glassesgingerly in the sink.
Verb TensesIn verbs, the tense shows the time of actionor state of being.Use the principal parts of verbs to form thesix basic tenses.The Basic Verb TensesPresent I eat pizza often.I always order from Pizza Hut.Indicates action that happens over and over.Principal part: presentUses no helping verbs.
Verb TensesThe Basic Verb TensesPast I ate pizza last night. I ordered from Pizza Hut. Indicates action that happened in the past. Principal part: past Uses no helping verbsFuture I will eat pizza tonight. I will order from Pizza Hut. Indicates action that will happen in the future. Principal part: present Uses helping verb will
Verb TensesThe Perfect Verb Tenses: indicate that an actionhas been completed.Present Perfect I have eaten pizza many times. He has ordered from Pizza Hut. Indicates action completed often. Principal part: past participle Uses helping verbs have or hasPast Perfect I had eaten pizza before you called. He had ordered from Pizza Hut. Indicates action completed in the past. Principal part: past participle Uses helping verb had
Verb TensesThe Perfect Verb Tenses: indicatethat an action has been completed.Future Perfect I will have eaten pizza many times by the end ofthe year. Indicates action that will be completed in thefuture. Principal part: past participle Uses helping verbs will and have
Verb TensesThe Progressive Forms: indicate an action thatis in progress.Present Progressive I am eating pizza. He is ordering from Pizza Hut. Indicates action in process of being completed. Principal part: present participle Uses helping verbs am, is, arePast Progressive I was eating pizza when you called. You were ordering from Pizza Hut. Indicates action that was in the process of being completed in thepast. Principal part: present participle Uses helping verb was or were
Verb TensesFuture Progressive I will be eating pizza for dinner tonight. Indicates action that will be in process in thefuture. Principal part: present participle Uses helping verbs will and be
Verb TensesThe Progressive Perfect Forms: indicatecompletion of an ongoing action.Present Perfect Progressive I have been eating pizza since I was little. Indicates action often in the process of beingcompleted. Principal part: present participle Uses helping verbs have and beenPast Perfect Progressive I had been eating pizza, but I stopped Indicates action was in process, but now is completed. Principal part: present participle Uses helping verb had and been
Verb TensesFuture Perfect Progressive On my net birthday, I will have been eatingpizza for eleven years. Indicates action that has been completed beforebut will be in progress in the future. Principal part: present participle Uses helping verbs will, have, and been
Verb TensesNow, why did we just learn all of this?Because in your writing, you need to keep yourtenses consistent.Choose the best tense for the situation (past,present, or future) and be consistent throughoutthe entire piece.
The Principal Parts of Regular Verbs Present: most basic form of the verb save Present Participle: helping verb am, is, are, was, or were verb with –ing ending am saving Past: verb with –ed ending saved Past Participle: helping verb have, has,