USING IRREGULAR VERBSUnderstand the problem.All verbs, whether regular or irregular, have five forms (often called principal parts).These forms are the infinitive, simple present, simple past, past participle, andpresent participle.The difference between regular and irregular verbs is the formation of the simple pastand past participle.Regular verbs are dependably consistent—the simple past ends in ed as does the pastparticiple.Review this chart:INFINITIVESIMPLEPRESENTS I M P LEPASTPASTP A R T I C I P LEPRESENTP A R T I C I P LEto laughlaugh(s)laughedlaughedlaughingto startstart(s)startedstartedstartingto washwash(es)washedwashedwashingto winkwink(s)winkedwinkedwinkingIn contrast, the simple past and past participle of irregular verbs can end in a varietyof ways, with no consistent pattern.Here are examples:INFINITIVESIMPLEPRESENTS I M P LEPASTPASTP A R T I C I P LEPRESENTP A R T I C I P LEto drivedrive(s)drovedrivendrivingto feelfeel(s)feltfeltfeeling1

to putput(s)putputputtingto swimswim(s)swamswumswimmingWith irregular verbs, writers make two frequent errors. They either 1) add anincorrect ed to the end of the past tense or past participle or 2) confuse one form withthe other.Read this sentence:Olivia feeled like exercising yesterday, so she putted on her bathingsuit and drived to the city pool, where she swum so far that only anextra-large pepperoni pizza would satisfy her hunger.What are the problems with this sentence? First, feeled should be felt. Next, puttedneeds no ed. The correct past tense of drive is drove. And we must change swum toswam.Know the solution.To avoid making mistakes with irregular verbs, learn the very long chart below. (Orbookmark this page in your web browser for future reference!)INFINITIVESIMPLEPRESENTS I M P LEPASTPASTP A R T I C I P LEPRESENTP A R T I C I P LEto arisearise(s)arosearisenarisingto awakeawake(s)awoke orawakedawaked orawokenawakingto beam, is, arewas, werebeenbeingto bearbear(s)boreborne orbornbearingto beatbeat(s)beatbeatenbeatingto becomebecome(s)becamebecomebecoming2

INFINITIVESIMPLEPRESENTS I M P LEPASTPASTP A R T I C I P LEPRESENTP A R T I C I P LEto beginbegin(s)beganbegunbeginningto bendbend(s)bentbentbendingto betbet(s)betbetbettingto bid (tooffer)bid(s)bidbidbiddingto bid (tocommand)bid(s)badebiddenbiddingto bindbind(s)boundboundbindingto bitebite(s)bitbitten or bitbitingto blowblow(s)blewblownblowingto breakbreak(s)brokebrokenbreakingto bringbring(s)broughtbroughtbringingto buildbuild(s)builtbuiltbuildingto burstburst(s)burst orburstedburst orburstedburstingto buybuy(s)boughtboughtbuyingto castcast(s)castcastcastingto catchcatch(es)caughtcaughtcatchingto choosechoose(s)chosechosenchoosingto clingcling(s)clungclungclingingto comecome(s)camecomecomingto costcost(s)costcostcosting3

INFINITIVESIMPLEPRESENTS I M P LEPASTPASTP A R T I C I P LEPRESENTP A R T I C I P LEto creepcreep(s)creptcreptcreepingto cutcut(s)cutcutcuttingto dealdeal(s)dealtdealtdealingto digdig(s)dugdugdiggingto divedive(s)dived ordovediveddivingto dodo(es)diddonedoingto drawdraw(s)drewdrawndrawingto dreamdream(s)dreamed ordreamtdreamed ordreamtdreamingto drinkdrink(s)drankdrunk ordrankdrinkingto drivedrive(s)drovedrivendrivingto eateat(s)ateeateneatingto fallfall(s)fellfallenfallingto feedfeed(s)fedfedfeedingto feelfeel(s)feltfeltfeelingto fightfight(s)foughtfoughtfightingto findfind(s)foundfoundfindingto fleeflee(s)fledfledfleeingto flingfling(s)flungflungflingingto flyflies, flyflewflownflying4

INFINITIVESIMPLEPRESENTS I M P LEPASTPASTP A R T I C I P LEPRESENTP A R T I C I P LEto forbidforbid(s)forbade orforbadforbiddenforbiddingto forgetforget(s)forgotforgotten orforgotforgettingto forgiveforgive(s)forgaveforgivenforgivingto forsakeforsake(s)forsookforsakenforsakingto freezefreeze(s)frozefrozenfreezingto getget(s)gotgotten orgotgettingto givegive(s)gavegivengivingto gogo(es)wentgonegoingto growgrow(s)grewgrowngrowingto hang (tosuspend)hang(s)hunghunghangingto havehas, havehadhadhavingto hearhear(s)heardheardhearingto hidehide(s)hidhidden orhidhidingto hithit(s)hithithittingto hurthurt(s)hurthurthurtingto keepkeep(s)keptkeptkeepingto knowknow(s)knewknownknowingto laylay(s)laidlaidlaying5

INFINITIVESIMPLEPRESENTS I M P LEPASTPASTP A R T I C I P LEPRESENTP A R T I C I P LEto leadlead(s)ledledleadingto leapleap(s)leaped orleaptleaped orleaptleapingto leaveleave(s)leftleftleavingto lendlend(s)lentlentlendingto letlet(s)letletlettingto lie (to restor recline)lie(s)laylainlyingto lightlight(s)lighted or litlighted or litlightingto loselose(s)lostlostlosingto makemake(s)mademademakingto meanmean(s)meantmeantmeaningto paypay(s)paidpaidpayingto proveprove(s)provedproved orprovenprovingto quitquit(s)quitquitquittingto readread(s)readreadreadingto ridrid(s)ridridriddingto rideride(s)roderiddenridingto ringring(s)rangrungringingto riserise(s)roserisenrisingto runrun(s)ranrunrunning6

INFINITIVESIMPLEPRESENTS I M P LEPASTPASTP A R T I C I P LEPRESENTP A R T I C I P LEto saysay(s)saidsaidsayingto seesee(s)sawseenseeingto seekseek(s)soughtsoughtseekingto sendsend(s)sentsentsendingto setset(s)setsetsettingto shakeshake(s)shookshakenshakingto shine (toglow)shine(s)shoneshoneshiningto shootshoot(s)shotshotshootingto showshow(s)showedshown orshowedshowingto shrinkshrink(s)shrank orshrunkshrunk orshrunkenshrinkingto singsing(s)sang or sungsungsingingto sinksink(s)sank orsunksunksinkingto sitsit(s)satsatsittingto slayslay(s)slew orslayedslainslayingto sleepsleep(s)sleptsleptsleepingto slingsling(s)slungslungslingingto sneaksneak(s)sneaked orsnucksneaked orsnucksneaking7

INFINITIVESIMPLEPRESENTS I M P LEPASTPASTP A R T I C I P LEPRESENTP A R T I C I P LEto speakspeak(s)spokespokenspeakingto spendspend(s)spentspentspendingto spinspin(s)spunspunspinningto springspring(s)sprang orsprungsprungspringingto standstand(s)stoodstoodstandingto stealsteal(s)stolestolenstealingto stickstick(s)stuckstuckstickingto stingsting(s)stungstungstingingto stinkstink(s)stank orstunkstunkstinkingto stridestride(s)strodestriddenstridingto strikestrike(s)struckstruckstrikingto strivestrive(s)strovestrivenstrivingto swearswear(s)sworeswornswearingto sweepsweep(s)sweptsweptsweepingto swimswim(s)swamswumswimmingto swingswing(s)swungswungswingingto taketake(s)tooktakentakingto teachteach(es)taughttaughtteachingto teartear(s)toretorntearingto telltell(s)toldtoldtelling8

INFINITIVESIMPLEPRESENTS I M P LEPASTPASTP A R T I C I P LEPRESENTP A R T I C I P LEto thinkthink(s)thoughtthoughtthinkingto throwthrow(s)threwthrownthrowingto andingto wakewake(s)woke orwakedwaked orwokenwakingto wearwear(s)worewornwearingto weaveweave(s)wove orweavedwoven orwoveweavingto weepweep(s)weptweptweepingto winwin(s)wonwonwinningto wringwring(s)wrungwrungwringingto writewrite(s)wrotewrittenwritingKnow the difference between the simple past tense and thepast participle.In addition to learning the chart above, you must also understand the differencebetween the simple past tense and the past participle.S IMPLE P AST T ENSEA simple past tense verb always has just one part. You need no auxiliary verb toform this tense.Read these examples:Because dinner time was near, my dog Oreo bit the spineof Moby-Dick and pulled the novel off my lap.9

Since Denise had ignored bills for so long, she wrote checks foran hour straight.Despite the noise, jolts, and jerks, Alex slept so soundly on thecity bus that he missed his stop.P AST P ARTICIPLEThe past participle, on the other hand, follows one or more auxiliary verbs.Read these sentences:Raymond had bitten into the muffin before Charise mentionedthat it was her infamous chocolate -broccoli variety.Had auxiliary verb; bitten past participle.Once Woody has written his essay for Professor Stover, he plansto reward himself with a hot fudge sundae.Has auxiliary verb; written past participle.Cynthia might have slept better if she had avoided The Nightmareon Elm Street marathon.Might, have auxiliary verbs; slept past participle.W HERETHEC ONFUSION L IESFor regular verbs, knowing the distinction between the simple past and pastparticiple is unnecessary because both are identical, reliably ending in ed.Consider these two sentences:Diane giggled as her beagle Reliable pushed his cold , wet noseinto her stomach, searching for cookie crumbs.Giggled simple past.Until the disapproving Daniela elbowed Latoya in the ribs, theyoung woman had giggled without stop at the toilet paperstreamer attached to Pr ofessor Clemens's shoe.10

Had auxiliary verb; giggled past participle.When you choose an irregular verb for a sentence, however, the simple past andpast participle are often different, so you must know the distinction.Here are two examples:Essie drove so cautiously that traffic piled up behind her, causingangry drivers to honk their horns and shout obscenities.Drove simple past.Essie might have drove driven faster if she had remembered herglasses and saw more than big colored blurs through thewindshield.Might, have auxiliary verbs; driven past participle.P AST P ARTICIPLESASA DJECTIVESIn addition, past participles function as adjectives, describing other words.When you use a past participle in this manner, you must choose the correct form.Read these sentences:The calculus exams gave given by Professor Ribley are so difficultthat his students believe their brains will burst.The leg of the relay race swam swum by Delores put the teamahead.The solo sang sung by Bianca uplifted everyone’s spirit.Remember that you can always consult a dictionary when you have a questionabout the correct form of an irregular verb.Grammar Bytes! 202111

1 USING IRREGULAR VERBS Understand the problem. All verbs, whether regular or irregular, have five forms (often called principal parts). These forms are the infinitive, simple present, simple past, past participle, and present participle. The difference